Author(s): Nadia Hassan Ali Awad, Heba Mohamed Al anwer Ashour

Email(s): heba.elanwer@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2020.00060.8   

Address: Nadia Hassan Ali Awad, Heba Mohamed Al anwer Ashour
Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 8,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2020


ABSTRACT:
Nurses are crucial players in the provision of healthcare, within this milieu, critical care nurses faces many stressors, conflicts, and ethical dilemmas escalating moral distress which require great ability of emotional intelligence that strengthen nurses coping and exalt work engagement. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence, moral distress, and work engagement among critical care nurses. Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was utilized. The current study was carried out in three University Hospitals at Alexandria. The participants in this study encompassed all critical care nurses (n= 250) who were working in critical care units at previous mentioned settings. Three tools were utilized in this study namely; Moral Distress Scale Revised (MDS-R), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The validity of data collection tools was done and reliability was found out using Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficient method. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire. Study data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and support with the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The main finding shows low level of emotional intelligence, high degree of moral distress, moderate work engagement among nurses. There is a highly statistical significant negative correlation between moral distress and overall emotional intelligence as well as its sub dimensions. Also, there is a highly statistical significant negative correlation between moral distress and overall work engagement and its sub dimension. In addition to, highly significant positive correlation between overall emotional intelligence and work engagement as well as their sub dimensions. The study recommended that top authority should provide positive, supportive and resourceful work environments, storytelling and group gatherings to share and discuss ethical and clinical situations, develop in-service training on emotional intelligence.


Cite this article:
Nadia Hassan Ali Awad, Heba Mohamed Al anwer Ashour. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Moral distress and Work Engagement as perceived by critical care Nurses. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2020; 8(3):237-248. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2020.00060.8


REFERENCES: 
1. Dalmolin G and et al. Implications of moral distress on nurses and its similarities with burnout. Text Context Nursing Florianópolis. 21(1); 2012:200-208.
2. Campbell A and Ntobedzi A. Emotional intelligence, coping, and psychological distress: a partial least squares approach to developing a predictive model. Electronic Journal of Applied Psychology. 3(1); 2007:39-54
3. Lawrence L. Work Engagement, Moral Distress, Education Level, and Critical Reflective Practice in Intensive Care Nurses. Nursing Forum. 2011;46 (4): 256-268
4. Zhu Y and et al. The impact of emotional intelligence on work engagement of registered nurses: the mediating role of organizational justice. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 24(15); 2015:2115-2124.
5. Nathaniel A. Moral reckoning in nursing. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 28(4); 2006:419-438
6. Corley M and et al. Development and evaluation of a moral distress scale. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 33(2); 2001:250-256
7. American Nurses Association (ANA). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. ANA, New York. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics-For-Nurses.html
8. Corley MC. Nurse moral distress: A proposed theory and research agenda. Nursing Ethics. 9(6); 2002:636-650.
9. Cobanoğlu N and Algier L. A qualitative analysis of ethical problems experienced by physicians and nurses in intensive care units in Turkey. Nursing Ethics. 11(5); 2004: 444–458.
10. Kinoshita S. Respecting the wishes of patients in intensive care units. Nursing Ethics. 14(5); 2007:651–664.
11. Akpinar A, Senses MO and Er RA. Attitudes to end-of-life decisions in paediatric intensive care. Nursing Ethics. 16(1); 2009:83–92.
12. Repenshek M. Moral distress: inability to act or discomfort with moral subjectivity? Nursing Ethics. 16(6); 2009: 734–742.
13. Pendry PS. Moral distress: recognizing it to retain nurses. Nursing Economic. 25(4); 2007: 217–221.
14. Peter E and Liaschenko J. Perils of proximity: A spatiotemporal analysis of moral distress and moral ambiguity. Nursing Inquiry. 11(4); 2004:218–225.
15. Hardingham L. Integrity and moral residue: Nurses as participants in a moral community. Nursing Philosophy. 5; 2004:127–134
16. Elpern E, Covert B and Kleinpell R. Moral distress of nurses in a medical intensive care unit. American Journal of Critical Care. 14(6); 2005:523-530
17. Jay M. Relationship between moral distress, perceived organizational support and intent to turnover among oncology nurses. Published Doctoral Dissertation. Minneapolis, Capella University. 2010
18. Frey R and et al. Burnout, compassionfatigue and psychological capital: findings from a survey ofnurses delivering palliative care. Applied Nursing Research. 43; 2018:1-9. 
19. Codier E, Muneno L and Freitas B. Emotional intelligence abilitiesin oncology and palliative care. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing. 13(3); 2011:184-188. 
20. Scruth EA, Garcia S and Buchner L. Work life quality, healthy workenvironments, and nurse retention. Clinical Nurse Specialist. 32(3); 2018:111-113. 
21. Kaur D and Sambasivan M. Effect of spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, psychological ownership and burnout oncaring behaviour of nurses: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 22(21); 2013:3192-3202. 
22. Karimi L and et al. Emotionalrescue: the role of emotional intelligence and emotional labour onwell-being and job-stress among community nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 70(1); 2014:176-186.
23. Mayer JD and Salovey P. What is emotional intelligence?,” in Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Educators. Edited by Salovey P and Sluyter D. Basic Books, New York, NY. 1997; pp.3–31
24. Wong C and Law K. The Effects of Leader and Follower Emotional Intelligence on Performance and Attitude: An Exploratory Study. The Leadership Quarter. 13; 2002:243-274.
25. Murthy G. Emotional Intelligence-Indian Hues. Human Resource Management Review. 4(3); 2004:18-22. 
26. Coleman A. A dictionary of psychology. 3rd ed. Oxford University press, USA. 2008. 
27. Law K and et al. The Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Life Satisfaction for the Research and Development Scientists in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 25(1); 2007:51-69. 
28. Bar-On R, Maree J, Elias M. Educating People to be Emotionally Intelligent. Praeger Greenwood Publishing Group, USA. 2007.
29. Yvonne F and Lan S. Emotional intelligence and Patient Centered Care. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100; 2007:368-374.
30. Arque B. Nurse Emotional Intelligence and Patients' Perceptions of Caring: A Quantitative Study. Published Doctoral Dissertation, University of Phoenix. 2015.
31. Ciarrochi J, Chan A and Bajgar A. Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 31; 2001:1105-1119
32. Sidhu H and Adhikari B. An examination of relationship between emotional intelligence, employee engagement, ethical ideology and job performance. Published Doctorate Dissertation, University of PHAGWARA. 2012.
33. Schaufeli WB, Martinez I, Marques-Pinto A, Salanova M, Bakker AB. Burnout and engagement in university students: Across national study. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology. 33; 2002:464-481.
34. Robinson D, Perryman S and Hayday S. Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job performance”, Academy of Managerial Journal. 53(3); 2004:617-635.
35. Gupta K. A Study of Employee Engagement with Regard to Banking. The Journal of Management Research. 17(N); 2008:7-26
36. Ann L. Work engagement, moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice in intensive care nurses. and intent to turnover among oncology nurses. Published Doctoral Dissertation Graduate College, THE University of Arizona 2009
37. Mason V and et al. Compassion Fatigue, Moral Distress, and Work Engagement in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Trauma Nurses Dimens. Critical Care Nursing. 33(4); 2014:215-225
38. Corley MC, Elswick RK and Gorman M. Development and evaluation of a moral distress scale. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 33(2); 2001:250–256
39. Hamric AB, Borchers CT and Epstein EG. Development and testing of an instrument to measure moral distress in healthcare professionals. AJOB Primary Research. 3(2); 2012:1–9.
40. Karagozoglu S, Yildirim G and Ozden D. Moral distress in Turkish intensive care nurses. Nursing Ethics. 24(2); 2017: 209–224
41. Wong C, Law K. The Effects of Leader and Follower Emotional Intelligence on Performance and Attitude: An Exploratory Study. The Leadership Quarter. 13; 2002:243-274.
42. Kong F. The validity of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Chinese sample: Tests of measurement invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age. Personality and Individual Differences. 116; 2017:29–31
43. Mealer ML and et al. Increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical care nurses. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 175(7); 2007:693–697.
44. Piers RD, Azoulay E and Ricou B. Perceptions of appropriateness of care among European and Israeli intensive care unit nurses and physicians. JAMA. 306(24); 2011:2694–2703.
45. Mealer M and Moss M. Moral distress in ICU nurses. Intensive Care Medicine. 42(10); 2016:1615–1617.
46. Rushton CH, Caldwell M and Kurtz M. CE: moral distress: a catalyst in building moral resilience. American Journal of Nursing. 116(7); 2016:40–49.
47. Moss M and et al. An official critical care societies collaborative statement: burnout syndrome in critical care healthcare professionals: a call for action. Critical Care Medicine. 44(7); 2016:1414–1421.
48. Allen R and et al. Moral distress among healthcare professionals at a health system. JONAS Healthc Law Ethics Regulation. 15; 2013:111-118.
49. Allen R and Butler E. Addressing Moral Distress in Critical Care Nurses: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine. 2(1); 2016:1-6
50. Dodek PM and et al. Moral distress in intensive care unit professionals is associated with profession, age, and years of experience. Journal of Critical Care. 31(1); 2016:178–182.
51. Colville G, Dawson D, Rabinthiran S, Chaudry-Daley Z. A survey of moral distress in staff working in intensive care in the UK. Journal of the Intensive Care Society. 20(3); 2019:196–203
52. Epstein EG, Hamric AB. Moral distress, moral residue, and the crescendo effect. Journal of Clinical Ethics. 20(4); 2009:330–342.
53. Sierra R, Castro J and Zaragoza F. Work engagement in nursing: an integrative review of the literature. Journal of Nursing Management. 24(2); 2015:101-111.
54. Mahboubi M and et al. Evaluation of work engagement and its determinants in Kermanshah hospitals staff in 2013. Global Journal of Health Science. 7(2); 2014:170-176. 
55. Abou Hashish E, Abdel All N and Mousa A. Nurses’ perception of psychological empowerment and its relationship to work engagement and job insecurity. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 8 (9); 2019:36-44
56. Klem C and Schlechter AF. The relationship between leader emotional and psychological climate: An exploratory study. South African Journal of Business Management. 39(2); 2008:9.
57. Allam L. The Relationship between Nurses’ Emotional Intelligence and their Caring Behavior at the National Medical Institute in Damanhour. Unpublished master thesis. Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. 2018.
58. Mahmoud H. Emotional Intelligence among Baccalaureate Students at the Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University: A Cross-sectional Study. Unpublished Master Thesis. Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. 2013.
59. Farghaly S. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership of the First-line Nurse Managers. Unpublished Master Thesis. Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. 2013.
60. Lawrence LA. Work engagement, moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice in intensive care nurses. Nursing Forum. 46(4); 2011:256-268.
61. Frey R and et al. Burnout, compassion fatigue and psychological capital: findings from a survey of nurses delivering palliative care. Applied Nursing Research. 43; 2018:1-9
62. Codier E, Muneno L and Freitas B. Emotional intelligence abilities in oncology and palliative care. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing. 13(3); 2011:184-188
63. Scruth EA, Garcia S and Buchner L. Work life quality, healthy work environments, and nurse retention. Clinical Nurse Specialist.32(3); 2018:111-113.
64. Kaur D, Sambasivan M and Kumar N. Effect of spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, psychological ownership and burnout on caring behaviour of nurses: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 22(22); 2013:3192-3202.
65. Karimi L and et al. Emotional rescue: the role ofemotional intelligence and emotional labour on well-being and job-stress among community nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 70(1); 2014:176-186.
66. Pérez-Fuentes M and et al. The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Engagement in Nurses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15(1915); 2018:1-13
67. Shukla S, Mohsin F and Singh V. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Employee Engagement: A Study of Leading Printing Press in NCR. Tecnia Journal of Management Studies. 8(1); 2013:1-18.
68. Matsumoto Y, Toyomasu K and Mihashi M. Study on the factors affecting on the work engagement of the nurses working at University Hospital: by use of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The Journal of the Kurume Medical Assosiation. 73; 2010:138-146.
69. Kawauchi E and Ohashi K. Relationship among Work Engagement, Job satisfaction and Turnover Intention of Registered Midwives and Nurses Working in Public Hospitals Providing Secondary Medical Care. The Journal of the Japan Academy of Nursing Administration and Policies. 15(1); 2011: 39-46
70. Fukuoka E, Taniguchi T and Kakehashi Y. The relationship between work engagement and a desire to leave employment among nursing staff: Including work-related stress. Nursing Care Research. 12(3); 2013:1-10.
71. Sato Y and Miki A. Influences of Job Stress, Coping Profile and Social Support on Work Engagement among Hospital Nurses-A Comparative Analysis According to Their Years of Clinical Experience. The Journal of Science of Labour. 90(1); 2014:14-25
72. Van Dusseldorp LR, van Meijel BK and Derksen JJ. Emotional intelligence of mental health nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 20; 2011:555–562
73. Kahraman N and Hiçdurmaz D. Identifying emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 25; 2016:1006–1015
74. Gerits L, Derksen JJ and Verbruggen AB. Emotional intelligence and adaptative success of nurses caring people with mental retardation and severe behavior problems. Mental Retardation. 42; 2004:106–121.
75. Arteche A and et al. The Relationship of Trait EI with Personality, IQ and sex in a UK sample of employees. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 16; 2008:421–426.
76. Liébana C and et al. Inteligencia emocional & vínculo laboral en trabajadores del Centro San Camilo. Gerokomos. 23; 2012: 63–68.
77. Azimi S and et al. Emotional intelligence of dental students and patient satisfaction. European Journal Of Dental Education. 14; 2010:129–132.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Ponnambily Jobin, Vathsala Sadan

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2017.00042.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Radhakrishnan

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Praveen S. Pateel

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): G. Radhakrishnan, S. Anuchithra

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2016.00071.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Meena Kumari Bimal, Ravneet Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2016.00073.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Bhavna R. Shetty, Rajashree Gujarathi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Darshana. Kumari, Vashali Taksande

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): PhiloResmi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vijayreddy Vandali

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2017.00021.X         Access: Open Access Read More

International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management (IJANM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to nursing sciences. IJANM's aim is to promote..... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652 

Popular Articles


Recent Articles




Tags