To Assess the Parental Perception on Sleep Habit among the Children in Pediatric Ward and OPD of Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur

 

Anjana Gopalakrishnan1, Anju Anto1, Anju Paul1, Ann Mariya P.R.1, Neena Biju1, Neethu Antony1, Rose Mary Varghese1, Thasni R. A1, Mrs. Suja Ann Joseph2, Dr. Sr. Treesa Anto3,

Dr. Angela Gnanadurai4

1Fourth year Bsc Nursing, Students, Jubilee Mission College of Nursing, Kachery, Thrissur.

2Asst Professor, Jubilee Mission College of Nursing, Kachery, Thrissur. 3Vice Principal, Jubilee Mission College of Nursing, Kachery, Thrissur. 4Professor, Jubilee Mission College of Nursing, Kachery, Thrissur.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sujaannthayil@gmail.com, thasnira@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Children are the worlds precious resources and the best hope for future. During clinical experiences, observation and rapport with mothers, investigators assess many children show difference in sleep patterns and irritated with daily life. The present study was aimed to assess the parental perception on sleep habit of children in the paediatric ward. Objectives: assess the parental perception on sleep habit among children and to find relationship between sleep habit and selected socio demographic variables. Methodology: Quantitative experimental approach was used with descriptive design. The data were collected from 50 children by using random   sampling   technique.   Data   were   analysed   using   descriptive   and   inferential    statistics.    Result and interpretation: The findings of the study had shown that majority of subjects 24(48%) of the children belongs to age group of 2 to 3 years, 27(54%) were females, 25(50) of children were moderately nourished.39(78%) of children has a meal pattern of more than one hour before sleep, 60% like outdoor play, 35(70%) does not need toys for sleep. Majority of the parents 22(44%) belongs to 26-30 age group, 25(50%) belongs to females, 17(34%) were graduates, 40(80%) were healthy. we found that there is a relationship between clinical data variables such as nutritional status(p=0.041) with sleep habit of children. By using parental perception questionnaire, we found that parents have good perception on sleep habit among children as out of 50 samples 35(70%) secure good score, 14 (28%) secure satisfactory score and only 1(2%) secure poor score.

 

KEYWORDS: Sleep habit, parental perception, sleep behaviour, morning wake up.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Every living creature need to sleep. It is primary activity of brain during every development. There are Non Rapid Eye movement sleep and Rapid Eye Movement sleep. During NREM sleep blood supply to muscles is increased, energy get restored, tissue Growth and repair occur, important hormones are produced for growth and development and in REM sleep our brain become more active and dreaming occur.

 

A good night sleep can brighten every ones day. Children are the future asset and sleep is very much important for their mental and physical development. At present days both parents are engaged in various works and they had no time to take care of their children. So children they doesn’t get any special attention or care in


all the needed areas of their life such as sleep, nutrition, education etc, and this lead to a sluggish asset to the world1.

Children are the precious gift of god, who has abilities to make an unimaginable future world. They convert a house to sweet home. Children contributes 1/3rd  of global population in that 19 billion are children. In India there are 400 million children. In that 3, 322, 245 children are in age group of 0 to 6 yrs. Out of this Kerala consist of 24.5% children. In Thrissur there 289126 children age group of 0 to 6 yrs2.

 

Over a typical life span, time spend, each day for sleep is getting decline. New born spend 16 to 20hrs, toddler spend 11 to 14 hrs but it is getting decline to 6 or 7 hrs. Various studies indicate that it is due to lack of physical play, attachment with parents. This can lead to sleep problem ranging from sleep apnea to narcolepsy3.

 

A study on parent perceptions of child sleep among 10000 swiddish children were conducted by Alla Go Palmstierna P, Sepa A, Ludvigsson J. They aimed to gather the information and data on parental report of child sleep and to investigate what are the factors influencing child sleep.. And use a subjective sleep report data on night waking and sleep quality, bed time and rise time were gathered from parents of around 10, 000 children from birth to age 5 by a cohort questionnaire study. They got into a conclusion that with increasing age, fewer waking, improved sleep quality and a more uniform sleep schedule seem normal. A difficult temperament and foreign origin were associated with lower quality sleep and more frequency waking in early ages, whereas being a single parent was not. Finally night feeding does not seem to condition children to frequent wakings4.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Research approach:

Quantitative approach was used in this study to assess parental perception on sleep habit among children admitted in pediatric ward and OPD of JMMC & RI.

 

Research design:

Research design used in this study was descriptive design to assess parental perception on sleep habit of children.

 

Setting:

This study was conducted in selected ward of JMMC &RI. The wards are,

·         Pediatric Medical Ward

·         Pediatric surgical Ward

·         Immunization Department

·         OPD of pediatrics


Population:

Population is the entire aggregation of cases in which researcher is interested.

 

Target Population:

The target population of present study was children in age group 2 to 6 yrs.

 

Accessible Population:

Accessible population of this study was the children in age group 2 to 6 yrs admitted in pediatric ward and OPD of JMMC and RI.

 

Sample and sample size Sample size - 50children Sample 2 to 6 yr children Sampling technique Purposive sampling method

 

Sample and sample size Sample size - 50children Sample 2 to 6 yr children Sampling technique Purposive sampling method

 

Description and scoring of data collected tools. Criteria for sample selection

Inclusion criteria:

Children admitted in pediatric ward, immunization area and OPD of JMMC and RI Exclusion criteria

1.          Children who are confined to bed and debilitated.

2.          Those parents not willing to participate in the study.

 

Description of tool:

The present tool consists of tool1, tool2.Tool1 include part 1 and part 2.

 

Part 1 is socio demographic and clinical data questionnaire of child and part2 is socio demographic and clinical data questionnaire of parent.

Tool 2 is the questionnaire for assessing sleep habit of child.

Tool 1:

Part 1: This part consist of socio demographic and clinical data variables of child.It include Age, sex, ordinal position economic status, nutritional status, play preference activity, Religion, meal pattern, interested object, nature of child bed time rituals, nature of sleeping

Part 2: This part consist of socio demographic and clinical data variables of parent. It include : Age, sex, religion, educational status, occupation, type of family, risky habit, number of children and health status.

 

Tool 2:

Self-administered modified questionnaire for assessing the parental perception on sleep habit of children by NICHD5 (2016). It Consist of 4 main domain with sub points. They are bed Time, sleep behaviour, waking during night, , morning wake up.


Scoring Technique and interpretation:

Observation were marked under 5 domain such as bed time, sleep behaviour, waking during night and morning wake up. To assess the parental perception on sleep habit of children we used 5 point likert scale. In it the scoring ranges from 5 to 1for the positive statement and Vice versa for negative statement.

 

The range of scoring on parental perception in each domain of sleep habit questionnaire is as follows

Category

Bed time

Sleep

behavio ur

Walking during night

Morning wake up

Range

Good

38-

45

30-35

9-10

17-20

85-

100%

Satisfactory

32-

37

25-29

7-8

14-16

70-

54%

Poor

25-

31

19-24

6-7

11-13

55-

69%

Very poor

<25

<19

<6

<11

<55%

 

Table1: Frequency and percentage distribution of children based on the sociodemographic and clinical data variables such as age, sex, ordinal position, socio economic status, religion.                                                             n=50

Socio demographic variable

Characteristics

Frequency (F)

Percentage

Age in years

2-3

24

48

 

3-4

10

20

 

4-5

4

8

 

5-6

12

24

Sex

Female

27

54

 

Male

23

46

Ordinal position

First born

27

54

 

Middle born

7

14

 

Youngest

16

32

Socioeconomic status

High class

6

12

 

Middle class

44

88

Religion

Hindu

22

44

 

Muslim

14

28

 

Christian

10

20

 

Others

4

8

 

Table 1 shows that majority of children 24(48%) belongs to the age group 2 to 3 years and 27 (54%) are females. 27(54%) are first born.44(88%) belongs to middle class. 22(44%) are hind

 

Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of children based on clinical data variables such as nutritional status, play preference, meal pattern, nature of child.                                                                                        n=50


This table shows that 28(56%) are moderately nourished. 30(60%) have out door play preference. 39(78%) have more than 1 hour meal pattern.24(48%) are easy to handle.

 

Table 3: Frequency and percentage distribution of children based on clinical data variables such as activities before sleep, most interested object for sleep, nature of sleeping room of child n=50

Clinical data variables

Characteristic s

Frequency (f)

Percentage (%)

Activities before sleep

Pray

8

16

 

Reading

2

4

 

Watching TV

24

48

 

others

16

32

Most interested object for sleep

Toys

13

26

 

Blanket

1

2

 

Bottle

1

2

 

Others

35

70

Nature of sleeping room of child

Calm

9

18

 

Cool

3

6

 

Dark

5

10

 

Too light

7

14

 

Dim light

13

26

 

Others

13

26

This table shows that 24(48%) likes watching TV before sleep, 13(26%) needed toys for sleeping.13(26%) need dim light for sleep.

 

Table 4: Frequency and percentage distribution of children based on clinical data variables such as sleeping pattern of child and bed time rituals.   n=50

Clinical data variables

Characteristics

Frequency (f)

Percentage (%)

Sleeping pattern of child

With parents

44

88

 

With siblings

1

2

 

With grand parents

3

6

 

Others

2

4

Bed time rituals

Bath

26

52

 

Brush

13

26

 

Say good night

3

6

This table shows that, 44(88%) sleep with parents and 26(52%) had the habit of bathing

 

Domain

Good

Satisfactory

Poor

Very

 

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

Bed time

6

12

21

42

22

44

1

2

Sleep behaviour

33

66

13

26

3

6

1

2

Waking during night

24

48

13

26

6

12

7

14

Morning wake up

27

54

2

4

2

4

1

2

Overall score

35

70

14

28

1

2

0

0

 

 
Table 5: Distribution of values based on parental perception on sleep habit, in domains Such as bed time, sleep behaviour, waking during night morning wake up.                                                                                     n=50


Clinical data variables

Characteristics

Frequency (F)

Percentage (%)

Nutritional status

Well nourished

22

44

 

Moderately nourished

28

56

Play preference

Out door

30

60

 

In door

20

40

Meal pattern

Just before sleep

1

2

 

1 hour before sleep

10

20

 

More than 1 hour

39

78

Nature of child

Easy

24

48

 

Difficult

23

46

 

Warm up

3

6


 

Table 6: Distribution of frequency, mean, t value, and p value of sleep habit and nutritional status of children.         n=50

Domains

Nutritional Status

f

Mean

t Value

p Value

Sleep Habit

Well-nourished Moderately nourished

22

28

95.41

90.39

2.104

0.041*

Bed Time

Well nourished Moderately nourished

22

28

32.72

32.46

0.257

0.803

Sleep Behaviour

Well-nourished Moderately nourished

22

28

30.91

3.90

1.717

0.092

Waking During

Night

Well-nourished Moderately nourished

22

28

8.45

7.61

1.383

0.173

Morning Wake Up

Well- nourished Moderately nourished

22

28

17.27

16.29

1.556

0.126

Table 6 shows that there is a significant relationship between sleep habit and nutritional status of children

 

RESULT:

In the present study we assessed the parental perception on sleep habit among children in pediatric wards and OPD of JMMC&RI. A quantitative research approach, descriptive design purposive sampling technique was used for this study. The study population comprise of 50 children of 2 to 6 years of age admitted in pediatric medicine ward, pediatric surgery ward, immunization department, OPD of pediatrics of JMMC&RI. Data collection period was two weeks. The data were collected using modified children sleep habit questionnaire and socio demographic variables. The data were tabulated and analyzed by using both descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential statistical (independent 2 sample t test). By using parental perception questionnaire we find that parents have good perception regarding the importance of sleep and its need. Out of 50 samples 35 secured good score, 14 secured satisfactory score and only 1 sample secured poor score. It is found that there is a significant (p<0.05) relationship between clinical data variables such as nutritional status (t=2.104, p=0.041), with sleep habit of child.

 

CONCLUSION:

The present study was to assess the parental perception on sleep habit among children in pediatric wards of JMMC&RI. At the end of the study investigation team found that parents have good perception regarding the sleep habit of their children and there is a relationship between clinical data variables such as nutritional status with sleep habit of child.

 

REFERENCE:

1.           World population prospects. The 2011 revision, govt of India. http//www.esa.org/epo/document/publication.html (internet). Pediatric 1; 176(6):564-45

2.           India at glance population census 2011 census organization of India. 2011. Retrived January 2014.www.census2011.co.pn/glance.p/p pediatric clinics 2012 Jun 2; 763(4); 786-56

3.           Lisa, Kersti Surah, Amy, Children report of sleep pattern, Journals of clinical sleep medicine JISM pp:28 March 2013.pediatrics 2005May 3; 58(3); 564-76

4.          Alla Go Palmstierna P, Sepa A, Ludvigsson J. Parent perceptions of child sleep: a study of 1 0 000 Swedish children. Acta paediatrica. 2008 Dec; 97(12):1631-9.

5.          National Institute of Child Health and Development.njaap.org>uploads>2016/04 NICHD publications. pediatrics.2016 April 2, 112(6):554-5.

 

 

Received on 09.07.2021                Modified on 29.07.2021

Accepted on 13.08.2021              ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2021; 9(4):379-382.

 DOI: 10.52711/2454-2652.2021.00087