A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge regarding Blood Borne Disease and Universal Precaution among House keeping Staff in selected hospital of Mehsana District

 

Mr. Dayalal D. Patidar1, Mr. Kaushal Patidar2, Mr. Hitesh Kumar Sikaligar3

1Principal, Joitiba College of Nursing, Bhandu, Dist: Mehsana

2HOD of Medical Surgical Department, Joitiba College of Nursing, Bhandu, Dist: Mehsana

3Second Year M.Sc. Nursing Student, Joitiba College of Nursing, Bhandu, Dist: Mehsana

*Corresponding Author E-mail: hiteshckaligar105@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: There are numerous ways by which germs or pathogens can enter the body and cause diseases. A blood-borne disease is one that is transmitted from one person's blood to another's and that manifests itself prominently in the blood elements. These include a broad spectrum of infectious conditions that reach their target tissue through the circulation of blood. The most common examples are HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Health care workers are at high risk of acquiring Blood-borne diseases, because they are exposing to blood and body fluids in their day-to-day duties. Needle stick injury to hospital staff, especially among housekeeping staff, is quite frequent and can result in infections and blood-borne diseases, but staff  frequently does not report the injury due to lack of awareness.4 Aims and Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding Blood borne disease and universal precaution among housekeeping staff selected hospital of mehsana district. To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on   knowledge regarding blood borne diseases and universal precaution among housekeeping staff. To find out the association of the knowledge score with their selected demographic variables. Methods- A quantitative approach using pre experimental one group pre test –post test design. 100 housekeeping staff were selected using non probability convenient sampling at Mehsana district. structured teaching programme was given to the housekeeping staff working at Mehsana district. Self structure questionnaire will prepare and used to assess the knowledge of housekeeping staff regarding Blood borne disease and universal precaution. Results: In  this study overall the highest percentage in the demographic data including the Age group 46% (39-48y), Gender 70% (Female), Religion 96% (Hindu), Educational qualification 56% (Higher secondary), Marital status 70% (Married), Duration of experience 54% (Above 10 years) Monthly income 70% (Above 15000),Type of hospital  70% (Govt. hospital), Current working area 64% (General ward), Infection control programme 90% (No), Knowledge regarding blood borne and universal precaution 90% (No), First source of knowledge 5% (Friends and relatives and Exposure to blood borne disease 90% (No).The post- test  mean (20.98 ± 2.98 ) was apparently higher than that of mean pre-test (10.28 ± 2.85) knowledge score. The calculated “T” value (59.60) was greater than the table value (1.98) at 0.05 level of significance The structured teaching was effective in increasing the Knowledge of housekeeping staff regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution. Chi-square test to associate the level of knowledge and selected demographic variable.

 

KEYWORDS: Assess effectiveness, structured teaching programme, knowledge, Blood borne and Universal precaution.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Health is a common theme in most cultures. In fact all communities have their concept of health, as part of their culture. Among definitions still used probably the oldest is that health is the “absence of disease” in some culture, health and harmony are considered equivalent, harmony being defined as “being at peace with the self, the community, god and cosmos”. The widely accepted definition of health is that given by the world health organization

 

[1948] in the preamble to its constitution, which as follows: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. In recent years this statement has been amplified to include the ability to lead a “social and economically productive life”.1

 

Infection:

Invasion of host an organisms bodily tissues by disease causing organisms, their multiplication and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infections are caused by micro-organisms such as viruses, prions, bacteria, and viroids and larger organisms like parasites and fungi.2

 

"Blood" means human blood, human blood components and products made from human blood.  The term "human blood components" includes plasma, platelets, and serosanguinous fluids (e.g., exudates from wounds).  Also included are medications derived from blood, such as immune globulins, albumin.

 

"Blood borne Pathogens" means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans.  While Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are specifically identified in the standard, the term includes any pathogenic microorganism that is present in human blood or OPIM (other potentially infectious materials) and can infect and cause disease in persons who are exposed to blood containing the pathogen. Pathogenic microorganisms can also cause diseases such as hepatitis C, malaria, syphilis, babesiosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, arboviral infections, relapsing fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (caused by HTLV-I), HTLV-I associated myelopathy, diseases associated with HTLV-II, and viral hemorrhagic fever.3

 

NEED OF THE STUDY:

A health worker's risk of infection from a needle stick injury depends on the pathogen involved, the immune status of the worker, and the severity of the needle stick.

 

The probability that a single needle stick will result in disease is 3 to 5 chances in 1000 for HIV, 300 chances in 1000 for Hepatitis B, and 20 to 50 chances in 1000 for Hepatitis C. Worldwide, approximately 2million workers experience a needle – stick injuries each year. A needle –stick injury could transmit hepatitis- B, Hepatitis – C or the Human immunodeficiency virus {HIV}. The risk of infection after exposure to infected blood varies with the type of pathogen. The risk of transmission after exposure to HIV – infected blood is about 0.3% whereas it is estimated to be up to 100 times greater for Hepatitis –B virus {30%} and could be as high as 10% for Hepatitis C virus.  An experimental study was conducted to compare the risk of Blood-borne infections among health care workers in different hospitals. In the World 2 billion people have been infected (1 out of 3 people) with hepatitis B. 400million people are chronically infected. 10-30million will become infected each year. An estimated 1 million people die each year from hepatitis B and its complications. Approximately 2 people die each minute from hepatitis B. Hepatitis B In the United States 12 million Americans have been infected (1 out of 20 people). More than one million people are chronically infected. Up to 100,000 new people will become infected each year. 5,000 people will die each year from hepatitis B and its complications. Approximately 1 health care worker dies each day from hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is 100 times more infectious than the AIDS virus.

 

According to UNAIDS (United nations Programme of AIDS) there were approximately 36.7million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2016, 2.1 Million were children (less than 15 yr old).

 

An estimated 1.8 million individuals worldwide become newly infected with HIV in 2016 about 5000 new infection/day including 160000 children. most of these children lives in sub-saharan Africa and were infected by their HIV positive mother's during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. In 2016 1 million people died from AIDS related illness. In June 2017, 20.9 million people living with HIV were accessing Antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally up from 15.8 million in June 2015, 7.5 million in 2016.

 

In India According to NACO (National Aids control Organization) in 2017, 2.1 million people living with HIV, 0.2% Adult HIV prevalence (ages 15-49yr), 88000 new HIV infections, 69000 Aids related death and 56% adult on antiretroviral treatment. In Gujarat , there are 48917 people suffering from HIV/AIDS of which 26955 are male and 18687 are female, there are 2975 children below 15 year of age who are living with HIV/AIDS, In surat alone there are 9998 people are HIV positive(5734 male and 3785 female) with 479 children according to Gujarat  state network of people living with HIV/AIDS.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

“A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Blood Borne Disease and Universal Precaution Among Housekeeping Staff in Selected Hospital Of Mehsana District.''.

 

OBJECTIVE:

1    To assess the knowledge regarding Blood borne disease and universal precaution among housekeeping staff selected hospital of mehsana district.

2    To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on   knowledge regarding blood borne diseases and universal precaution among housekeeping staff.

3    To find out the association of the knowledge score with their selected demographic variables.

 

HYPOTHISIS:

H0    There will be no significant difference between pre test and post test knowledge score regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution at 0.05 level of significance.

H1    There will be significant difference between pre test and post test knowledge score regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution at 0.05 level of significance.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

A quantitative research approach using pre experimental one group pre test –post test design.100 Housekeeping staff were selected using non probability convenient sampling at Mehsana district. structured teaching programme was given to the housekeeping staff  working at Mehsana district. Self structure questionnaire will prepare and used to assess the knowledge of housekeeping staff regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution.

 

RESULTS:

Demographic data was analyzed using frequency and percentage. Frequencies, percentage, mean, median, mean percentage and standard deviation was used to determine the knowledge score. The ‘T’ value was computed to show the effectiveness of structured teaching programme and chi-square test was done to determine the association between the pretest knowledge of housekeeping staff with selected demographic variables.

 

FINDING RELATED TO DEMOGRAPHIC DATA:

In  this study overall the highest percentage in the demographic data including the Age group 46% (39-48y), Gender 70% (Female), Religion 96% (Hindu), Educational qualification 56% (Higher secondary), Marital status 70% (Married), Duration of experience 54% (Above 10 years) Monthly income 70% (Above 15000),Type of hospital  70% (Govt. hospital), Current working area 64% (General ward), Infection control programme 90% (No), Knowledge regarding blood borne and universal precaution 90% (No), First source of knowledge 5% (Friends and relatives and Exposure to blood borne disease 90% (No).

 

FINDING RELATED TO PRE AND POST KNOWLEDGE SCORE:

The table 1.  Showed that Out of 100 pre-test samples Poor knowledge is 65%, average 35% and good 00%. Post-test poor knowledge is 0%, average 40% and good 60%.

 

Table 1. Frequency and percentage distribution of pre test and post test knowledge

Level of knowledge

Pre-test

Post-test

F

%

F

%

Poor (0-10)

65

65%

00

00%

Average (11-20)

35

35%

40

40%

Good (21-30)

00

00%

60

60%

 

Figure 1: bar diagram showing percentage distribution of the sample according to the pre-test and post-test level of knowledge.

 

Finding Related to Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme:

The pre-test knowledge means score is 10.28 and standard deviation is 2.85. Post test knowledge score is 20.98 and standard deviation 2.98. The ‘T’ test calculated value is 59.60 and table ‘T’ test table value is 1.98 which is significant at 0.05 levels. Thus it rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the research hypothesis. The pre test and post test mean % is 34.26% and 69.93% and different is 35.67%.so knowledge is increase after intervention. This indicates that the structured teaching programme is effective in increasing the knowledge of housekeeping staff regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution.

 

Comparison of mean percentage of pre-test and post-test knowledge score.

 

Table 2. Mean, mean difference, standard deviation, and “T” test value of pre test and post test knowledge score

Parameter

Mean

Standard deviation

Mean difference

‘t’ test

Pre-test

10.28

2.85

 

 10.70

 

59.60

Post-test

20.98

2.98

Table no.3. Comparison of mean percentage of pre-test and post-test knowledge score.

Type of test

Knowledge regarding Braden scale on pressure sore

 

Mean

Mean percentage

Pre-test

10.28

34.26%

Post-test

20.98

69.93%

Mean percentage difference

10.70

35.67%

N- 100

 

 

Figure2. Bar diagram showing the effectiveness of structured teaching programe on knowledge percentage

 

Finding related to association between pretest knowledge score with selected demographic variables:

The association between the Pre test level of Knowledge and socio demographic Variable. Based on the Third objectives used to chi –square test to associate the level of knowledge of housekeeping staff regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution and selected demographic variable. The chi square value shows that their marital status is significant and other is not significant at the 0.05 level of significance.

 

CONCLUSION:

The conclusions drawn from the finding of the study are as follows:

The ’T’ test is done to find the effect of structured teaching programme. It revealed that there is highly significant gain of knowledge after the administration of intervention. The ’T’ value is 59.60 and research hypothesis is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected. The pre test and post test mean % is 34.26% and 69.93% and different is 35.67%.so knowledge is increase after intervention. This indicates that the structured teaching programme is effective in increasing the knowledge regarding blood borne disease and universal precaution.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Park. K. Preventive and social medicine.18th edn. Jabalpur: Banasidas Bhanot Publishers; 2005:12-13.

2.      EJNMMI Research. Spring Open Journal. Inflamation and Infection. Available from: http:// www.ejnmmires.com/content/3/1/8.

3.      Q and A On OAHA’ S Blood Borne Pathogens Standard. Available from: http://www.usciences.edu/safety/infotrain/qablood.htm.

4.      “Blood-borne diseases”, en.wikipedia.org.

5.      “Blood-borne diseases”, www.answers.com.

6.      “Hepatitis B”, en. Wikipedia.org.

7.      “Hepatitis C”, en. Wikipedia.org.

8.      “Acknowledgement of Understanding and Practice of Universal Precautions”, www.lar.medsch.wisc.edu.

9.      Katie o. Making senses of universal precautions. Nursing times. July 6:90(27) 35-6.

10.   Elmiyeh B, Whitaker IS, James MJ, Chahal CAA, Galea A, Alshafi K. “Needle-stick injuries in the National Health Service”: a culture of silence. J R Soc Med2004; 97:326 -7 Journal of the Royal Socityof Medicine

 

 

Received on 21.08.2019         Modified on 05.09.2019

Accepted on 04.10.2019       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int.  J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2020; 8(1):89-92.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2020.00021.9