A Pre Experimental study to evaluate the Effectiveness of Snake and Ladder game on Knowledge of Environmental Sanitation among Middle School Children at Selected School in Madurai, Tamilnadu.
Mrs. Deva Pon Pushpam. I
Nursing Tutor, Bee Enn College of Nursing, Jammu
Environmental science is an age old science and its impact on health has been documented during ancient period in India. Since then lot of measures were taken by the government of various countries to improve environmental sanitation. A pre experimental research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 middle school children. The data was collected by using a structured questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation was administered to the middle school children and was evaluated. The collected data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics and findings showed that 23 (38.3%) middle school children had good knowledge and 31 (51.7%) had average knowledge in the post test. The calculated ‘t’ value (22.709) was found to be highly significant at the level of p < 0.05. This showed that the knowledge of environmental sanitation among middle school children increased after the snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation. There was a significant association between the level of knowledge and selected socio demographic variables such as occupational status of father and mother.
It is a known fact that people’s health depends upon quality of environment in which they live. But unfortunately the environment is deteriorating due to human deeds such as modernization, urbanization, population explosion, deforestation, etc(4).
Two of the changes needed to achieve Health for All are concerned with a healthy environment and healthy life style and require initiatives by the individual, the family and the community(5). A broad programme on hygiene education and promotion of low cost sanitation is being developed with United Nations Children’s Fund(6). The health habits of children are regards personal hygiene, clean surroundings, exercise etc. Health education of the school children is an important part of prevention of health problems. With a view to making learning interesting as well as effective, various media and materials should be used in schools. They should be inexpensive and easily available. Education and entertainment can be well integrated through their use and children’s learning can be a joyful activity(7). According to an article published in the Journal of Biological Education states that school children are indirect influences of environmental education to parent’s attitude towards environment. Children can have an important role to play by generating interest, changing attitudes and changing behavior of adults(9). Nitin Joseph, Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran, Ganesh Kumar Saya, Shashidhar M Kotian and Ritesh G Menezes (2012) conducted a study about environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India. Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20%) schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3%) and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7%) schools.
Lakshmi Prasanthi (2007) conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of snake and ladder game on knowledge of common ailments among 60 primary school children in Bangalore. The design used is pre experimental one group pre test post test design. The results revealed that the post test score was higher than the pre test score and was statistically significant at 5% level (t(59)= 19.16, p<0.05). Akhand (2012) conducted a study to determine the impact of health education on intestinal parasites and use of sanitary latrine among school aged children of Bangladesh. Stool sample were collected from 252 study samples. It revealed that more than 53% of the sample was still infected with one or more intestinal parasitic infection. But it was significantly lower at 0.5% level among those who had received health education and used sanitary latrines. Philip (2012) conducted a pre test post test control group study on promoting health in schools through board games among 23 sixth standard children. The experimental group showed 5.4% better improvement in knowledge than control group. The difference was statistically significant (x2=7.56, p<0.01)
· To assess the level of knowledge on environmental sanitation among middle school children at selected school in Madurai.
· To evaluate the effectiveness of snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation among middle school children at selected school in Madurai.
· To associate the level of knowledge on environmental sanitation among middle school children with their selected socio demographic variables.
1. This study is based on the assumption that middle school children may not have adequate knowledge regarding environmental sanitation.
2. The children may show interest in the snake and ladder game method of teaching.
3. Children influence performance of their parents on sanitation practices.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Quantitative approach was used for this study.
A pre experimental - one group pre test post test research design was adopted for this study.
The target population for this study was the middle school children.
The study was Conducted at Government Higher Secondary School, Paravai in Madurai.
In this study, the middle school children at Government Higher Secondary school, Paravai in Madurai who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected as the samples. The sample size was 60. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples.
CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION
The following criteria are used in this study to select the samples.
· The children between the age group of 11-14years.
· The children who know to speak and read Tamil.
· Both male and female children.
· The children who are not willing to participate.
· The children who are not available during the time of data collection.
· The children who have sensory deficit (visual impairment).
Snake and ladder game on knowledge of environmental sanitation
The level of knowledge on environmental sanitation among middle school children
TOOL AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION:
The structured questionnaire consists of 2 sections.
Section A :
Socio demographic data which includes age, sex, order of the child, type of family, education of father and mother, occupation of father and mother, monthly income of the family, etc.
Section B :
20 questions on importance of environmental sanitation and effects of poor environmental sanitation. It includes air pollution, land pollution, water pollution and noise pollution.
Each correct answer carries one mark. The maximum mark will be 20.
16 – 20 – Good
11 – 15 – Average
Below 10 Poor
Pilot study was conducted after getting permission from the Chief Educational Officer, Deputy Director of Health Services, Block Medical Officer and the headmistress of the school. Ten children were selected from 6th standard. Brief introduction was given about self and the study was explained. Written consent was obtained from the parents and confidentiality was assured. The findings of the pilot study revealed that 100% of the children had poor knowledge in pre test. After the snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation, the post test level of knowledge revealed that 10% had good knowledge, 60% had average knowledge and 30% had poor knowledge. The pilot study findings made known that the study setting was feasible and the tool was applicable to conduct the main study.
RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL:
The reliability of the tool was established using a data collected from 10 middle school children studying at Government Higher Secondary School, Paravai in Madurai. Reliability was established by split half method, which measures the co efficiency of internal consistency. The reliability of the test was calculated using Karl Pearson’s correlation formula. The reliability obtained for the knowledge questionnaire was 0.89. Hence the tool was considered highly reliable for the study.
Data Collection Procedure:
The data collection was done for a period of 5 weeks from 12.08.2014 to 15.09.2014. The investigator got permission from the Chief Educational Officer, Deputy Director of Health Services, Block Medical Officer in Samayanallur and the headmistress of the school in Paravai. The samples were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria by using purposive sampling technique. A brief self introduction about the researcher was given and explained about the intervention. Pre test was conducted using a structured questionnaire on knowledge of environmental sanitation to the samples on first day after getting the written consent from their parents. From second day, the snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation was given to the samples for 3 days. The snake and ladder game was given to 10 samples in each group lasting for 1 hour for each group. The post test was conducted on 8th day after 3rd day of intervention.
PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS:
Research proposal was approved by the dissertation committee of College of Nursing, Madurai Medical College, Madurai. Ethical committee approval was obtained from the Institute Ethical Committee, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai on 07.02.2014. And also the permission was obtained from the Chief Educational Officer, Deputy Director of Health Services and Block Medical Officer. An informed consent from the parents of each study sample was obtained before starting the data collection. Positive benefits were explained to all the study samples. They were also explained that they may withdraw from the study at any time without any penalty. Assurance was given to the samples that confidentiality would be maintained through-out the study.
PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS:
The collected data was organized, classified, grouped and analyzed on the basis of descriptive and inferential statistics.
1. Frequency and percentage distribution were used to analyze the demographic variables of middle school children.
2. Mean and standard deviation were used for assessing the pre test and post test level of knowledge on environmental sanitation.
1. Paired t-test was used to examine the pre test and post test level of knowledge on environmental sanitation.
2. Chi-square test was used to analyze association between knowledge on environmental sanitation with their selected socio demographic variables.
Major Findings of the Study:
· In pre test 96.67% of subjects had poor knowledge and 3.33% had average knowledge.
· In post test, the level of knowledge is increased 38.33% had good knowledge, 51.67% had average knowledge and 10% had poor knowledge.
· Out of 60 subjects, the pre test mean was 6.18, standard deviation was 2.21 and mean percentage was 30.9. After the snake and ladder game on environmental sanitation the post test mean was 14.77, standard deviation was 2.75 and the mean percentage was 70.5. It reveals that there is significant difference in the mean percentage and is observed to be 39.6.
· The calculated ‘t’ value of the level of knowledge questionnaire (22.709) was much higher than the table ‘t’ value at 0.001 level of significance. The difference in mean scores shows a significant improvement in the knowledge among middle school children. So, the snake and ladder game on teaching environmental sanitation was effective which increase the knowledge level among middle school children.
· There is a significant association between the post test level of knowledge and selected socio demographic variables such as occupational status of father and mother.
This study is dedicated to my family members and faculty and principal of college of Nursing, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.
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Received on 24.01.2017 Modified on 10.02.2017
Accepted on 28.03.2017 © A&V Publications all right reserved