Knowledge and Attitude on Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Among Diabetic Patients belongs to Waghodia Taluka

 

Mr. Ravindra HN1, Mr. Kevin S. Christian2, Ms. Pooja. G3, Mr. Prem. R3, Ms. Priyal. J3,

Mr. Rajat. A3, Ms. Riya. R3

1HOD, Department of MSN Nursing, Sumandeep Nursing College ,Piparia, waghodia, Vadodara

2Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Sumandeep Nursing College, Piparia, Vadodara.

3Final year B.Sc. Nursing Student, Sumandeep Nursing College, Piparia, Waghodia, Vadodara

*Corresponding Author’s Email: sumandepnursingcollege@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been accepted as an important instrument that empowers people with diabetes to achieve and maintain therapeutic goalsThis study is Aims and Objective:1] To assess the level of knowledge on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among of diabetic patients. 2] Assess the Attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among of diabetic patients. 3] Find out the Correlation between level of Knowledge and Attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients. 4] Find out the association between levels of knowledge with selected demographic variables of diabetes mellitus patients. 5] Find out the association between attitudes with selected demographic variables of diabetes mellitus patients in Waghodia Taluka. Methods: The interventional study was conducted andsample consisted of 200 patients of selected area of Waghodia Taluka. The tools used for data collection was a set demographic variables. Interview scale will be used to assess the knowledge and Likert scale will be used to assess the Attitude on SMBG. A planned teaching program on knowledge and attitude on SMBG among diabetic patients belongs to waghodia taluka was the intervention of the study. Content validity of the tool was ensured by verifying it with experts from the field of medicine and nursing. In the data gathering process, a pre-test was administered to assess the knowledge level of sample on the same day was conducted. After 7th day post test was administered using the same set of questionnaire to assess the knowledge. Interpretation: The result showed that negative correlation between knowledge and attitude on SMBG in among diabetic patient belong to Waghodia Taluka. Conclusion: The motivated the diabetic patient about knowledge and attitude on SMBG in diabetic patient. It has given a new avenue to the researcher to widen the horizon on move research aspect of knowledge and attitude on SMBG in diabetic patient.

 

KEYWORDS: Assess, Effectiveness, Knowledge and attitude, SMBG, DM patient.

 


 

 

INTRODUCTION:

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multi system disease related to the abnormal insulin production, impaired utilization of insulin or both. Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem in the world and its prevalence is increasing rapidly. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been accepted as an important instrument that empowers people with diabetes to achieve and maintain therapeutic goals. The WHO estimates 177 million people with diabetes worldwide. In India, there are nearly 35 million diabetic patients and the number would go unto 80 million by 2030. If unchecked the diabetes can cause disease related to kidney, heart and nerve system at later stage.

 

NEED FOR STUDY:

The WHO estimated 30 million people worldwide had diabetes mellitus in 1985. A decade later, the global burden of diabetes mellitus was estimated to be 135 million. In the year 2006 it was 246 million. This is likely to increase at least 366 million by 2030. Around 3.2 million deaths every year are attributable to complications of diabetes; six deaths every minute. The top 10 countries, in numbers of sufferers are India, China, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil, Italy, and Bangladesh. At present in India 41 million patients suffering with diabetes mellitus and this number will reach 79.4 million by 2030.

 

STATEMENT OF THE STUDY:

“Knowledge and attitude on self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients belongs to Waghodia Taluka

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

1)   To assess the level of knowledge on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among of diabetic patients of Waghodia Taluka.

2)   Assess the Attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among of diabetic patients of Waghodia Taluka.

3)   Find out the Correlation between level of Knowledge and Attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients belongs to Waghodia Taluka.

4)   Find out the association between levels of knowledge with selected demographic variables of diabetes mellitus patients in Waghodia Taluka.

5)   Find out the association between attitudes with selected demographic variables of diabetes mellitus patients in Waghodia Taluka.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

Ž   H1: There was significant association between existing level of knowledge score on SMBG with their socio-demographic variables

Ž   H2: There was significant correlation between Knowledge and Attitude score on SMBG.

 

ASSUMPTIONS:

·      Community people may have limited knowledge on SMBG.

·      DM patients may have positive or negative attitude on SMBG.

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION:

ŽKnowledge: It refers to level of understanding regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients belongs to waghodia taluka.

ŽAttitude: It is considered predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards SMBG by diabetes mellitus patients.

ŽSMBG: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a blood test monitor by self with a specialized device.

ŽDiabetes patients: Person suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 regarding at geographical area of waghodiataluka.

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Methodology of research indicates the general pattern of organizing the procedure for the empirical study together with the method of obtaining valid and reliable data for problem under investigation.

 

RESEARCH APPROACH:-A quantitative research approach is adopted for the study.

RESEARCH DESIGN:-Non Experimental Descriptive design

RESEARCH VARIABLES

Dependent variable

Ž               Knowledge on SMBG of patients with diabetes mellitus.

Ž               Attitude on SMBG of patients with diabetes mellitus.

Socio-Demographic variable

Age, gender, marital status, education qualification, occupational status, monthly income demographic area, BMI, duration of the DM,  previous source of health information, family history, abdominal girth.

 

SETTING OF THE STUDY: The study will be conducted in the rural area of Waghodia taluka.

 

TARGET POPULATION: Diabetic Patients.

SAMPLE SIZE: 209 Diabetic Patients.(n=209)

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Non Probability Convenient Sampling

 

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

Self-Structured and administered interview scale and Self Modified likert Scale

 

SAMPLING CRITERIA

Sampling criteria is the list of characteristics essential for inclusion or exclusion in the target population.

 

Inclusion Criteria

1.    Diabetic Patients from a Waghodia taluka.

2.    Those who are willing to participate in the study.


3.    Those who know Gujarati, Hindi or English Language.

 

Exclusion Criteria

1.    The Diabetic Patients who are not available at the time of data Collection.

2.    The Diabetic Patients who are not willing to participate in the Study.

 

PILOT STUDY

Small scale version or a trial run done in preparation for a major study. The tool was used for pilot study to test feasibility and practicability. 20 Diabetic Patients were selected from the Piparia village Vadodara. The convenient sampling technique was used to select samples. The findings showed that the study is feasible and practical.

 

 

DEVELOPMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF TOOL

An instrument selected in a research should be as far as possible, the vehicle that would best obtain data for drawing conclusion, which were pertinent to the study.

Ž               Section A Socio demographic variables: Age in years, gender, marital status, educational qualification, occupational status, monthly income of family (rupees), family history of diabetes, duration of diabetes mellitus in years, and previous sources of health information

Ž   Section B Knowledge interview scale: This section consists of 15statements to assess the level of Knowledge self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients.

·      Inadequate knowledge: score less than 50%

·      Moderately adequate knowledge: score 50% -75%

·      Adequate knowledge:  score more than 75%

 

Ž   Section C Attitude Scale: This section consist of 10 items to assess the Attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) using 3 point likert scale such as “Strongly Agree”, “Agree”, “Disagree”. The maximum score is 30.


 

 


RESULT:

Table 1:frequency and percentage distribution of diabetic patient according to demographic variables         N=209

Sr. no

Demographic variables

Characteristics

Frequency

Percentage (%)

1

Age in years

30-40 years

22

10.5

41-50 years

43

20.6

51-60 years

123

58.9

60 and above

21

10.0

2

Gender

Male

127

60.8

Female

82

39.2

3

Marital status

Single

200

95.7

Married

2

1.0

Divorced

7

3.3

Separated/widowed

00

00

4

Educational  Qualification

Illiterate

43

20.6

Primary

88

42.1

Higher Secondary 

62

29.7

Graduate and above

16

7.7

5

Occupational Status

Private employee

133

63.6

Business

49

23.4

Government employee

6

2.9

Self-employee

21

10.0

Retired

00

00

6

Monthly Income of Family (Rupees)

2500-5000

49

23.4

5001-10000

130

62.2

10001-20000

24

11.5

20000 and above

6

2.9

7

Family History of diabetes

Present

19

9.1

Not Present

190

90.9

8

Duration of diabetes mellitus in years

0-5 years

164

78.5

5-10 years

34

16.3

10-15 years

8

3.8

15 years and above 

3

1.4

9

Previous sources of health information

TV/Radio/ Posters

00

00

Friends

00

00

Health personal

170

81.3

Family members

39

18.7

 

 

ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE

A)              Assessment of knowledge on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients

 

Table 2: Mean, SD, and mean% score for the test knowledge level

SCALE

MAX SCORE

MEAN

SD

MEAN%

KNOWLEDGE

15

10.10

2.07

67.33%

 

Table 2: illustrates that overall knowledge score was found to have a mean of 10.10, standard deviation of 2.07 and mean% of 67.33%.

 

Figure 1: Bar graph represents that 52.2% is having adequate knowledge, 41.6% is having moderately adequate knowledge and 6.2% having inadequate knowledge.

 

B)               Assessment of Attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients

 

Table 3: Mean, SD and mean% of attitude scale

SCALE

MAX SCORE

MEAN

SD

MEAN%

ATTITUDE

30

18.35

2.77

61.16

 

Table 3:illustrates that overall attitude score was found to have a mean of 18.35, standard deviation of 2.77 and mean% of 61.16%.

 

FIGURE 2: Bar graph represents that majority 73.3%% is having moderately attitude, 25.4% is having mild attitude and 3.3% having adequate attitude.

 

Table 4: relationship between knowledge and attitude on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among diabetic patients

 

Items

Mean

Mean%

SD

Correlation between knowledge and attitude

REMARKS

Knowledge

15

10.10

67.33%

2.07

-0.153

Negative Correlation

Attitude

30

18.35

61.16%

2.77

 

Table 4: illustrates that the correlation between knowledge and attitude is r=-0.153 is found moderate negative correlation.

 

Table 5: Association of socio demographic variables with knowledge

Sno

Variables

IA

MA

A

Total

X2

Df

Level Of Significance

1

Age (In Years)

 

30-40 years

5

17

0

22

3.80

6

(3.80<12.59) NS

 

41-50 years

11

30

2

43

 

51-60 years

29

89

5

123

 

60 and above

8

13

0

21

2

Gender

 

Male

33

90

4

127

0.09

2

(0.09<5.99) NS

 

Female

20

59

3

82

3

Marital status

 

Single

50

143

7

200

2.10

4

(2.10<9.48)NS

 

Married

0

2

0

2

 

Divorced

3

4

0

7

4

Educational  Qualification

 

Illiterate

9

34

0

43

20.25

6

(20.25>12.59) S

 

Primary

15

70

3

88

 

Higher Secondary 

19

39

4

62

 

Graduate and above

10

6

0

16

5

Occupational Status

 

Private employee

31

98

4

133

20.67

6

(20.67>12.59) S

 

Business

16

32

1

49

 

Government employee

2

2

2

6

 

Self-employee

4

17

0

21

6

Monthly Income of Family (Rupees)

 

2500-5000

10

36

3

49

8.43

6

(8.43<12.59)NS

 

5001-10000

30

97

3

130

 

10001-20000

11

12

1

24

 

20000 and above

10

36

3

49

7

Family History of diabetes

 

Present

4

15

0

19

1.02

2

(1.02<5.99)NS

 

Not Present

49

134

7

190

8

Duration of diabetes mellitus in years

 

0-5 years

37

121

6

164

5.12

6

(5.12<12.59)NS

 

5-10 years

11

22

1

34

 

10-15 years

3

5

0

8

 

15 years and above 

 

 

 

 

9

Previous sources of health information

 

Health personal

42

122

6

170

0.27

2

(0.27<5.99)NS

 

Family members

11

27

1

39

KEY= S is significant, NS is not significant. DF= Degree of freedom

 


Ų H2: There was significant association between existing level of knowledge score on SMBG with their socio-demographic variables. So here to test the hypothesis, chi-square test has been used. Data have been analyzed with the use of SPSS version 20.0 and the outputs are depicted in the above table. The table reveals that there is no significant association between pre- test knowledge score and selected demographic variables with 0.05 level of significant except educational qualification, and occupational status of sample’s P calculated value is greater than 0.05 level of significance

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

This chapter includes conclusion, implication, limitations and recommendations. The following conclusions were drawn from the finding of the present study. The research approach adopted in the present study is quantitative research approach and design was Non Experimental Descriptive design. The motivated the diabetic patient about knowledge and attitude on SMBG in diabetic patient. It has given a new avenue to the researcher to widen the horizon on move research aspect of knowledge and attitude on SMBG in diabetic patient.

 

REFERNCES:

1.     Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. 2009 Jan 1 [cited 2016 Mar 28]; 32 (Suppl   Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613584/.

2.     Susddarth  and  Brunner  “Text  book  of  Medical  Surgical  Nursing”  Mew  York. J.B. Lippicott company 2000.

3.     Medscapelogin.[cited2016mar28].availablefrom:http:// www.medscape. org /viewarticle/709187.

4.     Ahmed AM. History of Diabetes Mellitus. Saudi Medical Journal. 2013 sep 27 2016mar25;23(4):373–8.

5.     Ozulik F Yiginer O, Arsolan E, Serdar MA, Assoc between glycemic control and level of knowledge and awareness of type-2 diabetes, Pol Arch Med Wemn 2010; oct;120(10); 399-406.

6.     Lippincott basic nursing research, 9 th edition, page no-910-11.                   Lippincott basic nursing research, 9 th edition, page no-910-11.

 

 

 

 

Received on 05.08.2016          Modified on 29.08.2016

Accepted on 05.09.2016          © A&V Publications all right reserved

Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management. 2016; 4(4): 398-403.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2016.00088.3