Knowledge and Practice among Staff Nurses regarding Body Mechanics

 

K. Jayakrishnan

Lecturer, Faculty of Nursing, Dept. of Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

*Corresponding Author’s Email: kjayakrishnan@soauniversity.ac.in

 

ABSTRACT:

A descriptive study with cross sectional survey approach was undertaken to find the extent of knowledge and practice among the staff nurses with OT, ICU and ward experience in IMS AND SUM hospital.  The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge and practice of body mechanics among staff nurse and to find out the association between demographic variables with knowledge and practice of staff nurses working in IMS and SUM hospital.

Hundred staff nurse were selected by purposive sampling technique and data was collected from the staff nurses who were in age group of 22-25 years, 87% of female and 49% staff nurses with diploma in nursing, 84% of them staff nurses, 54% with ward experience and 38% with 0-1 year of experience.

The extent of knowledge in these 100 staff nurses are shown as, with the help of frequency and percentage to be, 42% staff nurses are having moderate and good degree of knowledge, 14 % of excellent, 2% of staff nurse with slight knowledge. The extent of practice in 100 staff nurses are shown as the percentage is 71% to be moderate, 18% of staff nurse having mild practice and 11% of staff nurse having excellent practice.

The association between demographic data and knowledge revels that knowledge is significantly associated with the gender, educational qualification, position, department of service and year of service. Rest of the other socio demographic variables are having is no significant association.

The association between practice and demographic data characteristics reveals that practice is significantly associated with age, department of service, year of service; and rest are not showing any significant association.

 

KEYWORDS:

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Body mechanics is a term used to describe the ways we move as we go about our daily lives. It includes how we hold our bodies when we sit, stand, lift, carry, bend and sleep. Poor body mechanics are often the cause of back problems. When we do not move correctly and safely, the spine is subjected to abnormal stresses that over time can lead to degeneration of spinal structures like discs and joints, injury, and unnecessary wear and tear.

That is why it is important to learn the principles of proper body mechanics.(1)

 

Body mechanics is directly related to the effective functioning of the body. The correct use of body mechanics should be evident in every activity and even during rest periods. The actions of walking, turning, lifting and carrying are essential components in nursing care.

 

A study conducted by J A Engel et al, on the topic of work related risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in the nursing professions; results of a questionnaire survey found that a large proportion of the subjects regularly had back complaints 36% but also had arm or neck 30% and leg complaints 16%. Almost all respondents (89%) considered nursing works as tasks are recognised as the primary cause for musculoskeletal disorders among the nursing workforce.(2)

 

Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of back, knee, shoulder and other joint pain among health care workers. Based on worker’s compensation claims for back injuries, nursing aides and licensed practical nurses ranked 5th and 9th respectively, among all occupations as those most at risks for such injuries.

 

A phenomenological hermeneutic analysis method showed that changes focused on the patient’s body, the staff member’s own body or cooperation with the patient. Awareness of one’s own body and confidence in one’s own ability seem to indicate differences in the manner of supporting the patient to move. The changes in transfer habits varied in contents and meaning from person to person, depending on the focus during the transfer. These findings can contribute to an understanding of how change takes place after an educational intervention.(3)

 

A study shows that greater compliance with interventions that incorporated new assistive patient assisted patient handling equipment, as opposed to those consisting of education and technique training alone. In several tasks, subjects who were untrained or non-complaint with interventions experienced significantly higher peak spinal loading. This, along with variations in techniques, led to increases in cumulative spinal loading with the use of patient handling equipment on some task. thus, the use of mechanical assistive devices may not always be the best approach to reducing back injuries in all situations.(4,5)

 

Yip Y conducted a cross sectional study on work stress, patient handling activities and the risk of low back pain among 377 nurses in Hong Kong. The results revealed that 153 (40.6%) reported having low back pain within the last 12 months. With symptoms of low back pain as the outcome, risks were increased where nurses self-reported that they only occasionally or never enjoyed their work and where frequent manual repositioning of patients on the bed was required and where they were required to assist patients while walking after adjustment for other potential confounders. The results indicate that an association exists between work stress, manual lifting and low back pain prevalence.(6)

 

To reduce the risk of injury to the client or nurse, the nurse must know and practice proper body mechanics. This includes knowledge of the actions of the factors involved in the coordination of body movement, and familiarity with the integrated functioning of the skeletal and muscular body.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

·      Assess the knowledge and practice of body mechanics among staff nurses working in IMS & SUM Hospital.

·      Find out the association between selected demographic variables with knowledge and practice of staff nurses working in IMS & SUM Hospital.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Participants:

100 staff nurses working in OTs, ICUs and wards of IMS & SUM Hospital were selected by non-probability purposive sampling. Staff nurses who were currently working in IMS & SUM Hospital, and has no mental or physical disabilities were selected for the study. After obtaining permission from the concerned authority the researcher started obtaining data from selected participants who were willing to participate in the study. Initially, the participants were explained in detail about the purpose of the study. After obtaining administrative and individual participant’s consent the confidentiality of the data was also ensured.

 

Measures:

Tools used for the study were a demographic performa, questionnaire for knowledge of body mechanics and practice of body mechanics checklist. Questionnaires were filled by the participants itself.

Knowledge and Practice:

 

It refers to correct responses and practice obtained from staff nurses about body mechanics using the checklist and closed ended questionnaire.

 

Body mechanics:

It is the utilization of correct muscles to complete a task safely and efficiently, without undue strain on any muscle or joint.

 

Staff nurses:

A professional who has successfully completed either GNM or B.Sc Nursing and working in IMS & SUM Hospital.

 

METHODOLOGY:

The present study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge and practice of staff nurses working in various setting in IMS & SUM hospital, and also their relationship with selected variables. Therefore, a survey approach was considered best, for the study.

 

METHODS:

On the period of data collection researcher would approach the participants directly and explain the purpose and method of using the questionnaires, also ensured the confidentiality of the data. Once the questionnaires were completed it was scored and interpreted according to the tool.

RESULTS:

Table 1 shows distribution of staff nurses with their age, gender, educational qualification, position, department and years of service. It was revealed that the majority participants were in the age group of 22-25 years, female and completed their diploma in nursing. Most of the participants were staff nurses, working in the wards with less than 1 year of experience.

 

Table 1: Sample Characteristics                                                   n=100

S no.

CHARACTERISTICS

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

1.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Age in year

18-21

22-25

26-29

≥30

 

23

55

18

04

 

23

55

18

04

2.

a)

b)

Gender

Male

Female

 

13

87

 

13

87

3.

a)

b)

c)

Educational Qualification

Diploma in Nursing

Basic B.Sc Nursing

Post Basic B.Sc Nursing

 

 

49

43

08

 

 

49

43

08

4.

a)

b)

c)

Position

Staff nurse

Nurse in charge

Supervisor

 

84

14

02

 

84

14

02

5.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Department of service

Ward

ICU

OT

OPD

 

54

29

15

02

 

54

29

15

02

6.

a)

b)

c)

Year of service

<1year

0-1  year

2-3 year

 

27

38

35

 

27

38

35

 

Figure 1 shows the distribution of staff nurses with the frequency according to knowledge on body mechanics. 14 of participants were having excellent knowledge, 42 participants were having good knowledge as does the another 42 participants with moderate knowledge and lastly only 2 participants were having slight knowledge on body mechanics.

 

Figure 2 shows the distribution of staff nurses with the frequency according to extend to practice on body mechanics. 11 of participants were having excellent practice, 71 participants were having moderate practice and lastly only 18 participants were having slight practice on body mechanics.

 

Table 2 shows the association between the knowledge of staff nurses on body mechanics and selected demographic variables. It could be seen that except for age, every other selected demographic variable is statistically significant.

 

Table 3 shows the association between the practice of staff nurses regarding body mechanics and selected demographic variables. It could be seen that for age, department of service and year of experience are statistically significant and every other selected demographic variables are not statistically significant.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: association between knowledge of body mechanics and demographic variables                                                           n=100

Sl.no

Variables

Chi square value

df

 p value

Interpretation

1.

Age in year

18-21

22-25

26-29

30

4.00

2

0.1347

Not statistically significant

2

Gender

Male

Female

21.20

1

0.0450*

Statistically significant

3

Educational Qualification

Diploma in Nursing

Basic B.Sc Nursing

Post Basic B.Sc Nursing

21.40

2

0.0001*

Statistically significant

4

Position

Staff nurse

Nurse in charge

Supervisor

14.59

2

0.0001*

Statistically significant

5

Department of service

Ward

ICU

OT

OPD

30.18

3

0.0001*

Statistically significant

6

Year of service

<1year

0-2  year

2-3 year

171.66

2

0.0001*

Statistically significant

                                                                                                                                       *p 0.05 is significant

Table 3: association between practice of body mechanics and demographic variables                                         n=100

Sl.no

Variables

Chi square value

df

 p value

Interpretation

1.

Age in year

18-21

22-25

26-29

30

11.53

2

0.0031*

Statistically significant

2

Gender

Male

Female

1.69

1

0.1930

Not Statistically significant

3

Educational Qualification

Diploma in Nursing

Basic B.Sc Nursing

Post Basic B.Sc Nursing

 

5.33

2

0.0694

Not Statistically significant

4

Position

Staff nurse

Nurse in charge

Supervisor

2.35

2

0.3082

Not Statistically significant

5

Department of service

Ward

ICU

OT

OPD

127.45

3

0.0001*

Statistically significant

6

Year of service

<1year

0-3  year

2-3 year

8.88

2

0.0117*

Statistically significant

*p 0.05 is significant

 


 

DISCUSSION:

In the study it was observed that with regard to knowledge about body mechanics among staff nurses are having 14% excellent knowledge, 42% each for good and moderate knowledge and only 2% with sight knowledge and it was supported by the study done by Moody et al on nurses working in elderly care wards and the cardiac care unit. It was observed that each year 12% of nurses would prefer to move jobs to reduce back pain and 12 -18% is leaving nursing because of chronic back pain condition, even after National institute for safety and health occupation has issued a work practices guide for manual lifting in 1981, to introduce healthy workers without risk of back pain.(7)

 

In the study it was observed that with regard to practice on body mechanics of 100 staff nurses are having 11% excellent, 8% mild and 7% moderate practice and it seems to have supported by a study designed to identify the usage of body mechanics in clinical settings and the occurrence of back pain among 56 nurses working in the medical, surgical, emergency and intensive care units of a state hospital in Turkey. Majority of nurses used body mechanics correctly while sitting (53.6%), carrying (64.3%), pulling or pushing (79.4%), moving the patient to the side of the bed without an assistant (53.4%), moving the patient in bed (71.4%) and assisting the patient to a standing position (66.6%). However, 57.1% of the nurses lifted and 82% extended in correctly. The study concludes that some of the nurses do not use body mechanics correctly and the majorities have low back pain.(8)

 

IMPLICATIONS:

To utilize the opportunities, provide the nurses new knowledge about body mechanics like lifting, shifting, bending etc. They gain knowledge about body mechanics and know how to reduce back pain, strain and spasm by using proper body mechanics. The body mechanics principles should be applied regularly in daily activities that nurses are more aware and make a habit for it. This is important to ensure that the implications of the misuse of body mechanics such as back pain can be avoided.

 

CONCLUSION:

The findings of the study are discussed in terms of the statistically measured data. It indicates 14% of staff nurses have excellent knowledge and 42% staff nurses have good knowledge and 42% of staff nurses have moderate knowledge and 2% staff nurses having slight knowledge.

 

The findings also indicate that the 11% of staff nurses have excellent practice, 18% of staff nurses having mild practice, and 71% participants are in moderate practice.

 

The investigation observed that there is significant association between gender, educational qualification, position, department of service and years of service with knowledge of staff nurses regarding body mechanics.

 

The major finding depicts that there is significant association between age, department of service and years of service with practice of staff nurses regarding body mechanics.

 

REFERENCES:

1.     Frey G, Bennett M, Ferguson Denise. The importance of proper body mechanics - keeping your spine healthy. Colarado Comprehensive Spine Institute. 2009.

2.     Fagerberg I, Norberg A. “Learning by doing” – Or how to reach an understanding of the research method phenomenological hermeneutics. Nurse Educ Today. 2009;29(7):735–9.

3.     Kindblom-Rising K, Wahlström R, Ekman S-L. Nursing staff’s perception of changes in patient transfer habits after a course - a phenomenological-hermeneutic study. Ergonomics [Internet]. 2007 Jul [cited 2016 May 3];50(7):1017–25. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510820

4.     Daynard D, Yassi A, Cooper J., Tate R, Norman R, Wells R. Biomechanical analysis of peak and cumulative spinal loads during simulated patient-handling activities: a substudy of a randomized controlled trial to prevent lift and transfer injury of health care workers. Appl Ergon [Internet]. 2001 Jun [cited 2016 May 3];32(3):199–214. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003687000000703

5.     Daynard D, Yassi A, Cooper J., Tate R, Norman R, Wells R. Biomechanical analysis of peak and cumulative spinal loads during simulated patient-handling activities: a substudy of a randomized controlled trial to prevent lift and transfer injury of health care workers. Appl Ergon. 2001;32(3):199–214.

6.     C M. Effectiveness of planned demonstration programme on knowledge and practice regarding proper body mechanics in caring helpless patients, among nursing students in selected nursing college at Kolar. Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences Bangalore, Karnataka; 2009.

7.     Moody J, McGuire T, Hanson M, Tigar F. A study of nurses’ attitudes towards mechanical aids. Nurs Stand [Internet]. 1996 Oct 16 [cited 2016 May 3];11(4):37–42. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8932140

8.     Hawrilenko M, Eubanks Fleming CJ, Goldstein AS, Cordova J V. Motivating Action and Maintaining Change: The Time-Varying Role of Homework Following a Brief Couples’ Intervention. J Marital Fam Ther [Internet]. 2015 Oct [cited 2016 May 3];n/a – n/a. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jmft.12142

 

 

 

Received on 04.05.2016           Modified on 20.05.2016

Accepted on 30.05.2016           © A&V Publication all right reserved

Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management. 2016; 4(3): 259-263.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2016.00057.3