Impression Management

 

S. Muniyandi

Assistant Professor, Kasturba Nursing College, Kasturba Health Society, Sevagram 442102

Wardha District, Maharashtra

*Corresponding Author’s Email: muniyandi4u@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Increases the probability of a desired outcome, Impression Management is one such as friendship or power or be it material to more competent.

 

KEYWORDS: Impression Management ; leadership behaviour; probability of a desired outcome

 

 


IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT:

All the world’s stage and all the men and women merely players

 

Towards a Definition:

It is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event by regulating and controlling information in social interactions4.

The process through which individuals attempt to influence the impressions other people form of them.

 

Why is it needed?

·         Creating a good impression is needed at a job interview.

·         Managers need to exhibit the correct image to their employees.

·         Plays a vital role in leadership behaviour

·         Educators need to create a favourable impression among learners for the teaching learning process to be effective

·         Vital to effective organizational communication1-4

 

Impression management tactics:

·         Verbal

·         Non verbal

 

Non-verbal tactics: 

·         Facial expressions

·         Touching

·         Body orientation

·         Posture

·         Interpersonal distance5

 

First impression the 93% rule

55% appearance and body language  

38% tone, pitch and pace of your voice

7% what you say 6

 

Within three seconds of seeing a person for the first time we decide their:

·         Social status

·         Education

·         Religion

·         Sexuality

·         Friendliness / approachability8

 

Verbal impression management tactics:

·         Assertive tactics

·         Defensive tactics

 

Taxonomy of impression management tactics – Jones and Pittman:

·         Ingratiation

·         Self promotion

·         Exemplification

·         Intimidation

·         Supplication 6-7

 

Ingratiation:

·         It could in other words also be called “attraction management”

·         The task and challenge of the ingratiator is to find out what the audience finds attractive in an individual and then provide it to them

 

Types of ingratiation9

·         Self-enhancement

·         Other-enhancement

·         Opinion conformity

·         Favour doing

 

Self enhancement9-11

Speaking about self to make oneself be seen as more attractive

 

Other-enhancement:

Supplying others with positive compliments.

 

Opinion conformity:

The individual expresses opinions or acts in a manner consistent with another person’s attitudes, beliefs and values to increase liking

 

Favour-doing:

·         People who do nice things are likely to be considered as caring, friendly and considerate.

·         A favour may be repaid in increased levels of liking by the boss.

 

Pitfall – “Ingratiator’s dilemma”

·         It means that the greater the need of the person to engage in ingratiation, the more likely that the attempts will be detected.

·         The audience may then react in a negative manner and come to dislike the actor more instead of liking

 

Self-promotion:

·         The self-promoter wants to be seen as competent instead of as likeable.

·         Successful self-promotion has the risk of causing others to feel jealous.

 

Intimidation:

·         The ingratiator wants to be liked, the self-promoter wants to be seen as competent and the intimidator wants to be feared.

·         It might be most common to see intimidation flowing from high to low power

 

Pitfall- “intimidator’s illusion:

·         The intimidating individual may come to think that his behavior is liked and accepted and in reality it is detested.

·         The liking and acceptance are a result of the strategic ingratiation of the target audience to counter balance the influence

 

Exemplification:

·         The exemplifier wants to be admired for discipline, honesty and decency.

·         The exemplifier is the boss who turns up early at work and leaves late or the colleague that never takes up holidays.

·         Involves strategic self sacrifice Advertises their behaviour

 

Pitfall:

The danger is if the behaviour does not match what the exemplifier has claimed.

 

Supplication: 

·         It involves exploiting ones weaknesses.

·         The individual emphasizes his own dependence and weakness to obtain help from a more powerful other.

·         An ideal way of applying supplication is through compensatory exchanges

 

Pitfall:

With the final tactic of supplication the risk is created to be perceived as lazy and demanding.

 

Benefits of good impression management10

·         Increases the probability of a desired outcome, be it a interpersonal one such as friendship or power or be it material such as raise in salary due to being seen as more competent

·         Enhancing one’s self esteem.

·         Facilitating the development of desired identities.

 

REFERENCES:

1.        https://www.boundless.com/management/...management.../impression-mana

2.        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impression_management

3.        study.com/.../impression-management-in-sociology-theory-definition-ex

4.        www.slideshare.net/yash231192/impression-management

5.        www.studentpulse.com/.../

6.        www.slideshare.net/yash231192/impression-management-25885236

7.        www.citeman.com/4484-impression-management-techniques.html

8.        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impression_management

9.        https://www.coursehero.com/.../Impression-Management-IM-Techniques

10.     www.psych.ufl.edu/~schlenkr/im_outline.

11.     www.wisegeek.org/what-is-impression-management

 

 

 

 

Received on 27.11.2015          Modified on 08.12.2015

Accepted on 15.12.2015          © A&V Publication all right reserved

Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management. 2016; 4(2): 178-180.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2016.00041.X