A Comparative Study on the Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Most Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Married Women at Low Resource Settings

 

Sangeeta N. Kharde

Professor and HOD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, K.L.E. Universityís Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum-10

*Corresponding Authorís Email: sangeeta.kharde@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Worldwide the sexually transmitted diseases continue to be a major† health problem. The sexually transmitted diseases are exercising a very adverse effect on human population and most of these diseases are caused due to ignorance. For prevention it is essential that people know how these diseases occur and how to prevent them. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases among urban and rural married women, to compare the knowledge and attitudes of urban and rural married women regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases, to find out association between knowledge and attitudes regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases and selected demographic variables, to develop information booklet regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases. The study was conducted on a sample of 250 (125 urban and 125 rural) married women of Rukmini nagar and Vantamuri village of Belgaum District, using purposive sampling technique. In the present study descriptive comparative survey design was adopted.† Data were collected by using structured knowledge questionnaire and Likertís 5 point attitude scale. The obtained data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, unpaired ďtĒ test and chi square. The findings of the study showed that the knowledge and attitude of urban married women regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases were greater than that of rural married women.

 

KEY WORDS: Common sexually transmitted diseases, urban low resource setting, information booklet.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Sexually transmitted diseases refer to a set of clinical infections in which a mode of transmission is through sexual contact and at least one sexual partner is infected1.

 

STDs are major causes of global morbidity and mortality. High prevalence of reproductive morbidities including sexually transmitted infections are soaring among married women. Women have higher incidence of STDs than men because of their greater biological susceptibility. In recent years STDs in women have become a serious point of interest worldwide.2

 

The World Health Organization estimates that more than 448 million cases of curable, sexually-transmitted infections occur annually throughout world in the adults aged 15-45 years.3

Many sexually transmitted diseases are treatable but effective cure is lacking for HIV, HPV. Curable STDs like Trichomoniasis may not show any severe symptoms. If not treated early, it increases woman's risk of getting other STDs.2 There are about 33.2 million HIV-infected people in the world.4India has an HIV/AIDS infection rate of 0.23%. An estimated 170,000 people die each year from HIV/AIDS in India.5 Estimates suggest that more than 80% of the sexually active women acquire genital HPV. About 11.4 % of women in the general population are estimated to harbor cervical HPV infection at a given time, and 70.9 % of invasive cervical cancers in the World are attributed to HPV.6 Globally, an estimated 170 million people acquired Trichomonas vaginalis.7 In India, trichomoniasis accounts for 2-7% of all STIs.8

 

Medical and Nursing professionals should educate women in preventing STDs during their clinical practice and they also have to be actively involved in distributing free pamphlets as information to create awareness among the patients and visitors. Information about knowledge and attitudes, through regular surveys is essential to better understanding the dynamics of the STD epidemic. Nurses play a key role in promoting health and wellness. Through health promotion and risk reduction, the individual develop a healthy lifestyle and reduce the risk of disease.

 

METHODOLOGY:

A descriptive research approach was considered to carry out the study. A comparative survey design was used. The main focus of the study was to compare the knowledge and attitude of urban and rural married women regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases in order to develop and administer health education pamphlet. The samples were married women residing in Rukmini Nagar (urban area) and Vantamuri (rural area) of Belgaum District who are in the reproductive age group of 18-49 years. The sample size considered for the study was 250 (125 from urban and 125 from rural) married women. The sampling technique used for the study was purposive sampling, which is a type of non probability sampling. The data collection instruments were structured knowledge questionnaire and Liketís 5 point attitude scale. The knowledge scores were divided into three categories viz; good, average and poor according to the mean and standard deviation. Likertís 5point attitude scale was used to assess the attitude towards the common sexually transmitted diseases. The attitude scores were divided into three categories viz; positive, neutral and negative according to the mean and standard deviation. †The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

 

OBSERVATION AND RESULTS:

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude Regarding the Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases among low Resource Settings:

Mean knowledge score of urban married women was 12.03 with SD 2.66 and mean knowledge score of rural married women was 6.30 with SD 1.95. Data analysis for the level of knowledge revealed that among urban 67 (53.6%) married women had average knowledge, 58 (46.4%) had good knowledge whereas; in rural 78 (62.4%) married women had average knowledge and 47 (37.6%) had poor knowledge.

 

Graph 1 Distribution of knowledge scores of urban and rural married women

 

Mean attitude score of urban married was 70.64 with SD 5.66 and mean attitude score of rural married women was 55.14 with SD 8.35. Data analysis for the level of attitude revealed that among urban 98 (78.4%) married women had neutral attitude and 27 (21.6%) had positive attitude. Whereas; in rural 85 (68%) married women had neutral attitude and 40 (32%) had negative attitude.

 

Graph 2 Distribution of attitude scores of urban and rural married women.

Table 1: Comparison of knowledge and attitude regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases among urban and rural married women by using unpaired t test n=250

Variables

t- value

p- value

df

Knowledge

19.392*

P<0.001

248

Attitude

17.173*

P<0.001

248

*significant

 

The mean calculated unpaired Ďtí value of knowledge was 19.392 (P<0.001) and attitude was 17.173(P<0.001).

 

Table 2: Association between the knowledge of married women regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases and selected demographic variables. n=250

Sr.no

Variables

Chi square

p- value

df

1.

Age in years

7.098

0.131

4

2.

Education

198.97*

<0.001

6

3.

Occupation

32.46*

<0.001

6

4.

Religion

19.57*

<0.001

4

5.

Previous exposure to information about STDs

133.53*

<0.001

2

6.

Source of information

4.86

0.6160

6

* Significant

 

Association between the knowledge regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases and demographic variables revealed that the demographic variables age, source of information were independent of each other. The other demographic variables education (χ2=198.97), occupation (χ2=32.46), religion (χ2=19.57) and previous exposure to information about STDs (χ2=133.53) showed an association with knowledge scores at 0.05 level of significance.

 

Table 3: Association between the attitude of married women regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases and selected demographic variables. n=250

Sr. no

Variables

Chi square

p- value

df

1.

Age in years

7.098

0.549

4

2.

Education

10.84

0.093

6

3.

Occupation

10.75

0.096

6

4.

Religion

25.13*

<0.001

4

5.

Previous exposure to information about STDs

3.32

0.190

2

6.

Source of information

29.65*

<0.001

6

*significant

 

Association between the attitude of urban and rural married women and demographic variables revealed that the demographic variables age, educational status, occupational status and previous exposure to information about STDs were independent of each other. The other demographic variables religion (χ2=25.13) and source of information (χ2=29.65) showed an association with attitude scores at 0.05 level of significance.

 

DISCUSSION:

Data analysis on level of knowledge revealed that among urban 53.6% of married women had average knowledge, 46.4% had good knowledge whereas; in rural 62.4% of married women had average knowledge and 37.6% had poor knowledge. The findings on attitude score showed that among urban 78.4% of married women had neutral attitude and 21.6% had positive attitude. Where as in rural 68% of rural married women had neutral attitude and 37.6% had negative attitude. Similar findings were seen in study conducted by S. Chhabra, S.Mishra9. The result showed that 13% of urban and 28.1% of rural women had no knowledge at all about STDs with the knowledge, in around 73.5% misconceptions were in 21.5%.

 

Association between the knowledge regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases with demographic variables revealed that the demographic variables age, source of information were independent of each other. The other demographic variables education (χ2=198.97), occupation (χ2=32.46), religion (χ2=19.57) and previous exposure to information about STDs (χ2=133.53) showed an association with knowledge scores at 0.05 level of significance. Similar findings were seen in study conducted by Sharanjit Kaur10. The findings of the study revealed that a statistically significant association was found between awareness level of women with their educational status (χ2=29.88), occupation (χ2=17.92) but a statistically insignificant relationship was observed with age and religion.

 

CONCLUSION:

The findings of the study showed that in urban majority had average knowledge and neutral attitude, few had good knowledge and positive attitude. Whereas; in rural also majority had average knowledge and neutral attitude but few had poor knowledge and negative attitude. Hence, the knowledge and attitude of urban married women regarding the common sexually transmitted diseases were greater than that of rural married women.

 

REFERENCES:

1.       Park K. Text book of Preventive and social medicine. 17th ed. 2002. Banarsidas Bhanut Publishers. India. P:253-255

2.       Melissa Conrad Stoppler. Sexually transmitted diseases in women- What are the Causes, Symptoms and Treatments for STDs in women. 2010

3.       WHO Media Centre. Sexually Transmitted Infections fact sheet. N 110. August 2011.

4.       Dr Richard Hunt. Human immunodeficiency virus and aids statistics and virology. Chapter 7. Available from URL: http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/lecture/hiv5.htm

5.       India HIV/AIDS Numbers. Available from URL: http://hiv-stats.realclearworld.com/l/64/India

6.       National Cancer Institute. Cervical cancer incidence [ONLINE]. 2005 [cited 2005].

7.       Sexually Transmitted Diseases Statistics, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID. Statistics about Trichomoniasis. 17 march 2013.

8.       V Preethi, Jharna Mandal, Ajay Halder. Trichomoniasis: An update. 2011, Vol(1) , Issue(2). P: 73-75.

9.       S.Chhabra, S.Mishra. Awareness and Misconcepts about Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Indian Medical Gazette. 2011;465-68

10.     Sharanjit Kaur, Bhupender Kaur. A descriptive study to assess the awareness of the women regarding cervical cancer. International Journal of Nursing Education. 2012;4; 66-67.

 

 

 

Received on 06.03.2015†††††††††† Modified on 16.03.2015

Accepted on 21.03.2015† †††††††† © A&V Publication all right reserved

Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management 3(2): April- June, 2015; Page 116-118