A study to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge & prevention of Heat Stroke among the adolescent studying in selected high schools at Gulbarga

 

Summayya Abareen

Lecturer in Pediatrics Nursing, Al-Kareem College of Nursing, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author Email: summi_raje2000@yahoo.com

 


BACKGROUND:

Heat stroke is a very common illness in adolescents affecting over 90% of males and 80% of females in all ethnic groups. Heat stroke significantly affects physical and psychosocial wellbeing.  Heat stroke is a medical emergency that can lead to elevated morbidity and mortality rates. It is one of the distressing conditions that affect the majority of the adolescents.

 

Heat related illnesses are increasing with increased global warming. Greater awareness regarding them will help in recognizing and treating these disorders at an early stage. Heat stroke is a preventable fatality warranting a high index of clinical suspicion in appropriate setting. Public education on heat illnesses, behavioural changes, enforced rests and fluid protocols, acclimatisation and ready availability of cooling facilities in hot aspects will help decrease morbidity and mortality due to heat stroke, because the mortality and morbidity rate from heat stroke are related to duration of temperature. When therapy is delayed, the mortality rate may be as high as 80% if early diagnosed it can be reduced to 10%. India is a place where the temperature rises during summer in many regions which make people suffer and prone for heat stroke.

 

Exposure to extreme heat (hot sun) is thought to play a major role to cause Heat stroke in adolescents. Psychological stress may exacerbate Heat stroke. Prevalence of heat stroke is more in adolescents. Hence it is very essential for adolescents to have enough knowledge of heat stroke and its prevention. To develop competency skills in managing and preventing heat stroke structured teaching programme is very essential to achieve knowledge in depth about Heat stroke and its prevention.

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.      To assess the level of Pre-test knowledge on heat stroke and its prevention among adolescents in selected high schools at Gulbarga.

2.      To administer structured teaching programme on heat stroke and its prevention among adolescents in selected high schools at Gulbarga.

3.      To determine the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on heat stroke and its prevention among adolescents by post test scores.

4.      To find out the association between Post-test level of knowledge on heat stroke and its prevention with their selected socio-demographic variables.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H1-The mean post test knowledge scores of the adolescents regarding heat stroke and its prevention is significantly higher than their mean pre-test knowledge scores.

H2-There is a significant association between the mean post-test knowledge scores of adolescentsregarding heat strokes and its prevention and their selected socio-demographic variables.

 

 

METHODOLOGY:

Research  Approach : Evaluative research approach.

 

Research  Design : Pre-experimental one group, pre-test, post-test design.

 

Setting of the Study: The study was conducted among 50 adolescents studying  in Chandrakant Patil High School, Gulbarga.

 

Sampling Technique: Non-Probability convenient sampling  technique was used for the study.

 

Description of the Tool: Tool comprises 2 sections. Section-I: Socio-demographic data of high school students. Section-II: Structured knowledge questionnaire on knowledge regarding heat stroke and its prevention. It consist of 32 objective type items.

 

Ethical consideration: Required ethical permission were obtained from principal, management, and study participants of Chandrakant Patil High School, Gulbarga.

 

Validity and Reliability: Content validity of the tool and Structured knowledge programme was established after consultation with 6 experts. Modifications were made on the basis of recommendations and suggestions of experts. The reliability of the tool was tested using split half method with Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.865 which indicate that the instrument is reliable.

 

Method of Data Collection: Prior to data collection, the pre-test was be conducted by administering socio-demographic profile and structured knowledge questionnaire on heat stroke and its prevention following which on the same day structured programme was implemented to the participants. After 7 days, the post-test was be conducted by administering the same tool that was used for pre-test to evaluate effectiveness of structured teaching programme.

 

RESULTS:

The data was collected from 50 adolescent boys and girls before and after the administration of STP. The collected information was organized, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

 

Section I: Description of the socio-demographic variables of adolescents.

Majority of the respondents, 35(70%) belongs to the age of 14-16 years. Half of the samples were males 25(50%). More than half of the adolesents 30(60%) were from 9th std.  Majority of the samples 22(44%) were found from the family whose monthly income was Rs. 15000-20000/-. Majority of samples 20(40%) were interested to play outdoor games and 21(42%) liked to wear cotton clothes. Nearly 26(52%) of the samples had received information on heat stroke through print media, 33(66%) had no previous knowledge on heat stroke and only 14(34%) had previous knowledge on heat stroke.

 

Section II:  Assessment of pre-test knowledge scores in adolescents on heat stroke and its prevention.

Assessment of the level of pre- test knowledge of adolescents reveals that highest of the respondents (74%) had inadequate knowledge whose score ranged between >50 and (26%) of the samples had moderately adequate knowledge who scored between 50-75, only (0%) of the respondents had adequate knowledge on heat stroke and its prevention.

 

Section III : Evaluation of the effectiveness of the STP in terms of knowledge on heat stroke and its prevention in adolescents.

Domains

Maxi.

Score

Respondents Knowledge

Paired ‘t’

Test

Mean

Mean %

S.D

Pre – test

32

14.68

45.88

2.35

 

Post – test

32

23.84

74.50

2.59

 

Effectiveness

 

9.16

28.62

0.24

16.659

 

 

The knowledge score of the adolescents on heat stroke and its prevention in pre – test and post – test  reveals that, post test Mean knowledge score found higher 23.84 (74.50%) and S.D of 2.59 when compared with pre – test Mean knowledge scores value which was14.68 (45.88%) and S.D of 2.35. The effectiveness in Mean, S.D and Mean percentage was 9.16±0.24 (28.62%). Hence , it is inferred that there is significant increase in the level of knowledge on heat stroke and its prevention after structured teaching programme.

 

Section IV: Association between the post– tests knowledge scores and selected socio-demographic variables.

Chi square was done to analyze the association between the post– test knowledge scores and the selected socio-demographic variables. The study findings show that, there is no association between the post – test knowledge score and socio-demographic variables.

 

IMPLICATIONS:

Nursing Education:

The study may contribute to nursing education by emphasizing on health promotion and prevention of heat stroke in the present and future era. The learning experience of the students should give more emphasis on teaching the population who are at risk. Education progamme should include lectures, demonstration and journal club presentation regarding heat stroke and its prevention. To emphases the need for updating the knowledge of nurses and utilize the learning opportunities.

 

Nursing practice:

The study is successful only when incorporated into practice. Educational programme with effective teaching strategies motivate people to follow healthy practices in their day to day life. The educative role of the nurses is an important component of the nursing practice. Nurses have an obligation to teach the sick and the healthy people to promote health, prevent disease and support health care practices.

 

Nursing Administration:

The Nurse administrator should take interest in providing information on health problems currently in trend. Nurse , as a administrator should plan and organize in-service education program, discussion, seminars on Heat stroke and its prevention and to motivate student nurses in conducting and attending such programmes.

 

Nursing Research:

As Heat stroke in emerging as a threat to the current era, there is a need for extended nursing research on Heat stroke and its prevention, to educate students and staff  for early detection, prevention and treatment of Heat stroke. Research on Heat stroke helps to provide evidence based nursing care.

 

LIMITATIONS:

§  The study findings cannot be generalized as the sample size was only 50.

§  The study was limited to adolescents between the age group of 14-16 yrs.

§  A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, which restricts the amount of information that can be obtained from the respondents.

§  The study did not use control group. The investigator had no control over the events that took place between pre-test and post-test.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS:

On the basis of findings of the study, the following recommendations are being made.

§   A similar study can be replicated on a large sample to generalize the findings.

§   An experimental study can be undertaken with control group for effective comparison.

§   A comparative study can be undertaken to compare the findings from the rural and urban aspect.

§   A study can be conducted to assess the effectiveness of teaching protocol in terms of knowledge, practice and attitude of adolescents on heat stroke and its prevention.

 

CONCLUSION:

The present study was attempted to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on heat stroke and its prevention among adolescents at a selected high schools at Gulbarga was found effective in improving the knowledge of adolescents regarding heat stroke and its prevention. Based on the above findings the study, recommendations were drawn for nursing education, nursing practise, nursing administration and nursing research.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1.       Rubin CH, Falter KH. Heat related deaths: Indian Journal of public health; 1998; 335:84-90.

2.       Rubin C H. “A Hafa National monthly from the house of Heat”. Health Action, May 2007, 26-27.

3.       Rubin C H. “A Hafa National monthly from the house of Heat”. Health Action, May 2007, 26-27.

4.       Alexandre Leyte. Heat stroke: Indian Journal of medical research; 2008. Aug; 328 (2):84-7.

5.       Fauci, Anthony S. Heat related illness: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008.

6.       Bouchama A. Heatstroke: A new look at an ancient disease: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 1995;21:623-5.

7.       Grubenhoff J. Ford K, Roosevelt G. Heat related illness. Clinical journal for pediatrics emergency medicine 2007; 8 (1); 59-64.

 

 

 

Received on 08.02.2014           Modified on 08.03.2014

Accepted on 22.03.2014           © A&V Publication all right reserved

Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management 2(1):Jan. - Mar., 2014; Page 28-30