A Quasi experimental study to assess the effectiveness of Yoga on Menopausal Symptoms among post Menopausal women in selected areas of Punjab.

 

Ms. Sarabjeet kaur1*, Ms Asha2, Ms Mercy Madan Lal3

1Lecturer, Dasmesh College of Nursing, Faridkot, Punjab

2Assistant Professor, State Institute of Nursing and Para Medical Sciences Badal, Muktsar Sahib, Punjab

3Assistant Professor, State Institute of Nursing and Para Medical Sciences Badal, Muktsar sahib, Punjab

*Corresponding Author E-mail: drsarab15@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Introduction: Menopause is an opportunity for the fullest blossoming of a woman’s power, wisdom and creativity. The majority of women report hot flushes, mood swings, anxiety, irritability Insomnia developing with increasing severity in the menopausal transition and becoming incessant in the years following last menstrual period. A menopausal natural remedy such as yoga can help immensely in curing menopausal symptoms. Materials and methods: A Quantitative Research approach, quasi experimental in which non randomized Control Group Design was used to conduct this research study. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 post menopausal women (30 in experimental and 30 in control group). Study was conducted in Gurudwaras of community areas of Shaheed Bal winder Nagar, Green Avenue of Faridkot Punjab. Pre interventional menopausal symptoms was assessed through interview method by using Menopause rating scale in both group Yoga has been provided for 21 days to post menopausal women of experimental group only. Post interventional menopausal symptoms was assessed through interview method by using menopausal rating scale from both groups. Results: The findings of the study revealed that Mean pre interventional Total menopausal score was 16.83±6.09 which decreased to 8.8±3.73 after providing yoga and was statistically significant at p<0.05 level of significance. In control group, Mean pre interventional Total menopausal score was 16.93±4.29 which slightly increased to 17.16± 3.07 in post interventional. There was association of Marital status with pre interventional and Dietary pattern with pre and post interventional menopausal symptoms of experimental group which was statistically significant at p<0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: It concludes that Yoga as complementary intervention was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms in post menopausal women.

 

KEYWORDS: Yoga, Menopausal symptoms, Post menopausal women.

 

 


 

 

INTRODUCTION:

Women are the vital set up and heart of the family. When women have been tired, family junction would be altered. Women are facing lot of problems through their life. One of most common problem they are facing is menopause and hormonal changes during their middle adulthood. The menopausal symptoms of women always make them so tired. So they need treatment and health education regarding menopausal care and prevention of symptoms.

 

Etymologically, the origin of the word menopause lies in the Greek words, “meno” (menses, month) and “pause” (stop, cease). Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of ovarian function and is thereby the end of a woman’s reproductive phase. Clinically, natural menopause is diagnosed retrospectively after 1 year of amenorrhea1. Complimentary therapy is one of the natural therapies for reducing the menopausal symptoms. Yoga is instead an adaptive discipline that can support the body through the myriad of biological changes it is making. Importantly, it can also support our minds and emotions, and allow us to come to a perspective on the inner processes that are happening2. 75% of women experience unpleasant symptoms with varying degrees of severity. Commonly reported symptoms include hot flashes (also known as hot flushes), night sweats, sleep disturbances, fatigue, pain, decreased libido, vaginal dryness and mood changes3. The word “Yoga” means “yoke” or “unity” translated from Sanskrit and its emphasis on the mind-body connection, the interrelation between physical and mental fitness. Yoga is a non-invasive, non-pharmacological and effective treatment. This can be done by concentrating physical body through breathing and postures in order to build strength and flexibility4. Yogic life style is a way of living, which aims to improve the body, mind and day to day life of individual. The eight limbs of Yoga are – Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahar, Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi. Yoga has spread around the whole world and has been studied so as to help people to cope with various health conditions including menopause. The most commonly performed Yoga practices are postures (asana), controlled breathing (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana)5

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:

During clinical posting, researcher came in contact with women aged 45-60 years who were suffering from post menopausal symptoms. Researcher decided to give complementary yoga as an alternative therapy to minimize the post menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women. So the researcher felt strong need to assess the effectiveness of yoga on menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women.

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.       To assess the pre-interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental and control group

2.       To provide yoga to post menopausal women in experimental group.

3.       To assess the post -interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental group and control group

4.       To compare pre and post -interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental and control group.

5.       To find out association of menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women with selected demographic variables.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H1: The mean post interventional menopausal symptoms score of post menopausal women was lower than mean pre interventional menopausal symptoms score at p< 0.05 level of significance after providing yoga to experimental group.

 

Rationale:

Mean pre- interventional menopausal symptoms Score of post menopausal women was 16.83 Where as mean post-interventional score was 8.8 after providing yoga to experimental group.

 

H2: There is significant association between the pre-interventional and post interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women with selected demographic variables at 0.05 level of significance.

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

A literature review is an organized written presentation of what has been published on a topic by scholar. Researchers undertake a literature review to familiarize themselves with existing knowledge base. The purpose of the review is to convey to the reader what is currently known regarding the topic of interest. It broadens the understanding and gains an insight necessary for the development of a broad conceptual context into which the problem fits.

 

Ruchika Garg et al (2015)6conducted a study to determine the mean age attaining menopause and prevalence of various menopausal symptoms. 218 postmenopausal were selected in study. The mean age of attaining menopause was 48 year. Prevalence of symptoms among ladies were muscle and joint pains (70%), mood swings (65%), low backaches (46.7%), hot flushes and excessive sweating (45%), change in sexual desire (44%) dryness in vagina (41%), urinary symptoms (35%) and anxiety and irritability in (11%) females.

 

 

Singh. A et al (2014)7. cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of New Delhi Among 252 postmenopausal women from A pretested, self-designed, semi structured, interview based, oral questionnaire was used. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences software Version 21.0 (SPSS) was used for analyses. The mean age at attaining menopause was 46.24 (Standard Deviation = 3.38) years. Only 4 (1.6%) postmenopausal women had premature menopause. A total of 225 (89.3%) postmenopausal women experienced at least one or more menopausal symptom (s). The most common complaints of postmenopausal women were sleep disturbances (62.7%), muscle or joint pain (59.1%), hot flushes (46.4%) and night sweats (45.6%). A total of 32.1% (n=81) postmenopausal women suffered from depression and 21.0% (n=53) postmenopausal women suffered from anxiety.

 

Jayabharathi. B.et al (2014)8 conducted A prospective randomized interventional study to evaluate the effect of yoga on quality of life of menopausal women. Simple random sampling technique was used for the study. Of 260 menopausal women ,130 of them were allotted to study group and 130 of them to control group. The study group underwent yoga training and practiced yoga daily for 35-40mints /day for 12 weeks. Standardized WHO QOL BREF Scale was used to assess the menopausal women’s quality of life. There was extremely high significant difference found in all domains of quality of life at p=0.001 level between study group and control group at 12 weeks. The study concluded that, yoga is an effective intervention in improving the quality of life of menopausal women.

 

Delavar. M. A et al (2008)9 conducted study to evaluate probable effect of yoga on menopausal symptoms Total 47 post menopausal women aging 45-63 participated in a 12 week restorative yoga intervention. Assessment were administered before, at week4, week 8 and week 12 yoga program. Post treatment measured was a 20 item checklist that embedded menopause symptoms with in a list of every day complaint experienced during two weeks before the interview,. Question were scored on the scale of 0-3 0(none).1 (mild), 2(moderate)0r 3(severe)depend or on how dramatically it affect women lives. The improvement for each symptoms was defined as absence the same symptoms at week 12, if total score was 15 or above, women were selected for yoga practice. In yoga classes there were breathing technique, posture and relaxation poses designed specifically for menopausal symptoms by certificate. Significant pre- to post treatment improvement were found for total score on menopausal questionnaires. There was a significant effect on mean hot flash score (p<0.001), Mean hot flash was 0.80±0.40 at base line ,0.72±0.46 at week 4,0.54±0.50 at week 8 and 0.41±0.50 at week 12. It suggest that yoga is powerful technique that can help to reduce menopausal symptoms

 

T. Jayadeepa, P. Muthulakshmi (2016)10 conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of Yoga therapy on quality of sleep among menopausal women of village at erode district by using one group pre and post test design. Sample was selected by Snowball sampling technique by using MRS (Menopause Rating Scale) was used to assess the quality of sleep among menopausal women. In pre test majority 11 (55%) of them had severe sleeping problems and 9 (45%) of them had moderate sleeping problems whereas in post test 15 (75%) of them had moderate sleeping problems and 5 (25%) of them had mild sleeping problems. The overall mean score was 49.15% in pretest and it was reduced to 38.9% in posttest with the difference of 10.25%. Paired ‘t’ test score was 7.461 %; it was high when compared to table value (2.093). Conclusion: There was no significant association between post test levels of quality of sleep scores when compared to demographic variables among menopausal women. It concluded that yoga therapy was effective in improving the quality of sleep among menopausal women.


 

 

 

 

METHODOLOGY:

 

FIGURE-1 SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Demographic variables of post menopausal women:

Majority postmenopausal women in experimental group (33.33) werein age group of 49-52 year were as Majority of post menopausal women (30%) were 53-56 year of age in control group, (50%) women had primary education

in experimental group were as (53%) women had primary education in control group ,( 90%) women were married in experimental group (93%) were married in control group, (80%0 women were house wife in experimental group as well as (76%) were house wife in control group Duration of married life of women was (43.33%) i.e 21-30 year in experimental group, (66.66%) i.e 21-30 year in control group . majority of women (63.33%) had 2 children in experimental group were as (40%) women had 2 children in control group majority of women having age at menopause (63.33%) were of 46-50 year, (83.33%) were vegetarian in experimental group were as (90%) were vegetarian in control group. mostly (66.66%) women had no pervious gynaecological surgery in experimental group were as (53%) women had previous gynaecological surgery. majority of women (63.33%) get information regarding yoga from mass media were as in control (46.66%) women get information regarding yoga from their family member /friends/relatives.

 

Criterion Measure for severity of Menopausal symptoms

 

TABLE No - 1

S.NO

MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS

 SCORE

  1.

PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

 

 None

0-1

 

 Mild

2-3

 

 Moderate

4-6

 

 Severe

7+

 2.

SOMATO-VEGETATIVE SYMPTOMS

 

 None

0-2

 

 Mild

3-4

 

 Moderate

5-8

 

 Severe

9+

 3.

UROGENITAL SYMPTOMS

 

 

 None

0

 

 Mild

1

 

 Moderate

2-3

 

 Severe

4+

 4.

 TOTAL MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS

 

 None

0-4

 

 Mild

5-8

 

 Moderate

9-16

 

 Severe

17+

 

Assessment of Pre and post interventional menopausal symptoms

 

OBJECTIVE 1:

To assess the pre-interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental and control group.

 

OBJECTIVE 3:

To assess the post -interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental group and control group.


 

TABLE No -2

 N= 60

Criteria

Score

Experimental group (n= 30)

 Control group (n=30)

Pre interventional n %

Post Interventional n %

 Pre interventional n %

Post interventional n %

 

No

 

0-1

PSYCHOLOGICAL

0 0

SYMPTOMS

2 6.67

 

 0 0

 

 0 0

Mild

2-3

3 10

17 56.67

 1 3.33

 0 0

Moderate

4-6

13 43 .33

9 30

 13 43.33

 14 46.67

Severe

7+

14 46.67

2 6.67

 16 53.33

 16 53.33

 SOMATO -VEGETATIVE SYMPTOMS

No

0-2

0 0

4 13.33

 0 0

 0 0

Mild

3-4

3 10

18 60

 0 0

 0 0

Moderate

5-8

18 60

8 26.67

 25 83.33

 28 93.33

Severe

9+

9 30

0 0

 5 16.67

 2 6.67

 UROGENITAL SYMPTOMS

No

0

0 0

5 16.67

 0 0

 0 0

Mild

1

 5 16.66

16 53.33

 0 0

 0 0

Moderate

2-3

 17 56.67

9 30

 22 73.33

 20 66.67

Severe

4+

 8 26.67

0 0

 8 26.67

 10 33.33

 TOTAL MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS

No

0-4

0 0

2 6.67

 0 0

 0 0

Mild

5-8

4 13.33

18 60

 0 0

 0 0

Moderate

9-16

16 53.33

10 33.33

 14 46.67

 18 60

Severe

17+

10 33.34

0 0

 16 53.33

 12 40

 

 Maximum score= 44 Minimum score= 0

 


Comparison of the effectiveness of yoga in pre-interventional and post –interventional menopausal symptoms.

OBJECTIVE 4: To compare pre and post -interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental and control group.

H1- There is the statistical difference between mean of pre-interventional and mean of post –interventional menopausal symptoms among post

menopausal women at level of 0.05 level.


 

 

Table No 3 Psychological score N=60

Group Psychological score

 Pre interventional

 Post interventional

 

N

Mean

SD

N

Mean

SD

Df

Paired 't'

Experimental group

30

6.7

2.33

30

3.46

1.52

29

't' =6.3472*

Control group

30

6.67

2.04

30

6.83

1.59

29

't' =0.1406NS

 

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=0.1176NS

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=8.3443*S

Table No 4 somato- vegetative score                                                                                                           N=60

Group somato- vegetative score

 Pre interventional

 Post interventional

 

N

Mean

SD

N

Mean

SD

Df

Paired 't'

Experimental group

30

7.3

2.65

30

3.96

1.99

29

't' =5.5025*

Control group

30

7

1.5

30

7

1.11

29

't' =0NS

 

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=0.5382NS

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=7.2818*S

 

Table No 5 Urogenital score N=60

Group Urogenital score

Pre interventional

 Post interventional

 

n

Mean

SD

N

Mean

SD

Df

Paired 't'

Experimental group

30

2.83

1.59

30

1.3

0.95

29

't' =4.5122*

Control group

30

3.16

1.08

30

3.33

0.82

29

't' =0.6763NS

 

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=0.9446NS

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=8.9438*S

 

Table No 6 Total menopausal score N=60

Group Total menopausal score

 Pre interventional

 Post interventional

 

N

Mean

SD

N

Mean

SD

Df

Paired 't'

Experimental group

30

16.83

6.09

30

8.8

3.73

29

't' =6.1572*

Control group

30

16.93

4.29

30

17.16

3.07

29

't' =0.2421NS

 

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=0.0735NS

Df = 58 Unpaired 't'=9.4708*S

Maximum Score= 44 Minimum Score =0

*= Significant at p<0.05 level

NS= Non significant

 


Objective 5: To find out association of menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women with selected demographic variables:

There was association of marital status and dietary pattern with pre interventional menopausal symptoms and dietary pattern with post interventional menopausal symptoms in experimental group, and all other demographic variables are not associated with menopausal symptoms such as Age, education, Occupation, Duration of married life, No of children, Age at menopause, Previous gynaecological surgery, Source of information regarding yoga both in experimental and control group

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

The first objective was to assess the pre-interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental and control group.

Finding of present study revealed that mean pre-interventional Psychological menopausal score was 6.7± 2.33 in experimental group and 6.76± 2.04 in control group .In experimental group majority of post menopausal women i.e 14(46.67%) were in severe category,13(43.33%) were in moderate and 3(10%) were in mild category of Psychological menopausal symptoms. In pre-interventional of control group majority of post menopausal women i.e 16 (53.33) had severe ,13(43.33) had moderate ,1(3.33%) women had mild Psychological menopausal symptoms.

 

The mean pre-interventional Somato vegetative symptoms score was7.3±2.65 in experimental group and 7±1.5 in control group. In experimental group during pre-interventional majority of post menopausal women i.e 18(60%) were in moderate category , 9(30%) were in severe and 3(10%) were in mild category of menopausal symptoms .In pre-interventional of control group majority of post menopausal women i.e 25 (83.33%) had moderate, 5(16.67%)) had severe Somato- vegetative menopausal symptoms.

 

The mean pre-interventional Urogenital symptoms score was 2.83 ±1.59 in experimental group and 3.16±1.08 in control group. In experiment+tal group during pre-interventional majority of post menopausal women i.e 17(56.67%) were in moderate category, 8(26.67%) were in severe and 5(16.66%) were in mild category of menopausal symptoms. In pre-interventional of control group majority of post menopausal women i.e 22 (73.33%) had moderate ,8(16%)) had severe Urogenital menopausal symptoms.

 

The mean pre-interventional Total menopausal symptoms score was 16.83 ±6.09 in experimental group and 16.93 ±4.29 in control group. In experimental group during pre-interventional majority of post menopausal women i.e 16(53.33%) had moderate menopausal symptoms, 10(33.4%) were in severe and 4(16.66%) had mild menopausal symptoms. In pre-interventional of control group majority of post menopausal women i.e 16 (53.33%) had severe ,14 (46.67%)) had moderate menopausal symptoms

 

It is supported by Delavar .MA, Babee9 who investigate the pre interventional mean of menopausal symptoms score was 19.9±6.43.

 

The second objective was to provide yoga to post menopausal women in experimental group.

In Present study yoga training and certificate was taken by researcher before providing yoga to postmenopausal women in experimental group. This is supported by Vora. R, Dangi A11 who investigate the effect of yoga on menopausal symptoms in early menopausal period.

 

The third objective was to assess the post -interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental group and control group:

Findings of present study revealed that the mean post interventional Psychological menopausal symptoms score was3.46 ± 1.52 in experimental and 6.83 ±1.59 in control group.In post interventional of experiment group majority of post menopausal women i.e 17(56.67%) were in mild,9(30%) were in moderate,2(6.66%) were in severe category , 2(6.667%) had no menopausal symptoms after providing yoga to experiment group.

 

In post-interventional of control group majority of postmenopausal women 16(53%) had severe, 14(46.67%) women had moderate, None had mild menopausal symptoms.

 

The mean post –interventional Somato vegetative menopausal symptoms score was 3.96 ± 1.99 in experimental group and 7 ±1.11 in control group. In post interventional of experiment group majority of post menopausal women i.e 18(60%) were in mild,8(26%) were in moderate ,4(13.33%) women had no menopausal symptoms after providing yoga to experiment group.

 

In post interventional of control group majority of postmenopausal women 28(93%) had moderate, 2(6.67%) women had severe, None had mild Somato- vegetative menopausal symptoms

 

The mean post interventional Urogenital menopausal symptoms score was 1.3 ±0.95 in experimental group and 3.33 ± 0.82 in control group. In post interventional of experiment group majority of post menopausal women i.e 16(53.33%) were in mild, 9(30%) were in moderate ,5(16.67%) women had no Urogenital symptoms after providing yoga to experiment group.

 

In post-interventional of control group majority of postmenopausal women 20(66.67%) had moderate, 10(33.3%) women had severe Urogenital menopausal symptoms.

 

The mean post –interventional Total menopausal symptoms score was 8.8 ±3.73 in experimental group and 17.16 ±3.07 in control group. In post interventional of experiment group majority of post menopausal women i.e 18(60%) had mild, 10(33.33%) had moderate, 2(6.67%) women had no menopausal symptoms and None had severe symptoms after providing yoga to experiment group.

 

In post-interventional of control group majority of postmenopausal women 18(60%) had moderate, 12(40%) women had severe, None had mild menopausal symptoms.

 

It is supported by Delavar .MA, Babee9 who investigate the post interventional mean of menopausal symptoms score was 6.0±9.60 after the administration of yoga

 

The fourth objective was to compare pre and post -interventional menopausal symptoms among post menopausal women in experimental and control group.

Findings revealed that postmenopausal women in experimental had an overall reduction in menopausal symptoms after providing yoga. In control group mean pre interventional Psychological menopausal symptoms score was 6.76 ± 2.04 and post interventional Psychological menopausal symptoms score was 6.83±1.59. Difference in pre interventional and post interventional was statistically non significant at p<0.05 level. In experimental group, mean pre-interventional Psychological menopausal symptoms score was6.7 ± 2.33 and mean post interventional Psychological menopausal symptoms score was 3.46 ± 1.52. Difference in pre-interventional and post interventional was statistically significant at p<0.05 level of significance. It was concluded that yoga had reduced Psychological menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

 

In control group mean pre interventional Somato vegetative menopausal symptoms score was7 ±1.5and post interventional score was7 ±1.11. Difference in pre interventional and post interventional was statistically non significant at p<0.05 level. In experimental group mean pre interventional Somato vegetative menopausal symptoms score was7.3 ± 2.65 and post interventional score was 3.96 ±1.99. Difference in pre-interventional and post interventional was statistically significant at p<0.05 level of significance. It was concluded that yoga had reduced Somato vegetative menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

 

In control group mean pre interventional Urogenital menopausal symptoms score was 3.16 ±1.08and post interventional score was 3.33 ± 0.82. Difference in pre interventional and post interventional was statistically non significant at p<0.05 level. In experimental group mean pre interventional Urogenital menopausal symptoms score was 2.83 ±1.59 and post interventional score was 1.3 ± 0.95. Difference in pre-interventional and post interventional was statistically significant at p<0.05 level of significance .It was concluded that yoga had reduced Urogenital menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

In control group mean pre interventional Total menopausal symptoms score was 16.93 ± 4.29 and post interventional score was 17.16 ± 3.07 Difference in pre interventional and post interventional was statistically non significant at p<0.05 level.In experimental group mean pre interventional Total menopausal symptoms score was 16.83 ± 6.09 and post interventional score was 8.8 ± 3.73.Difference in pre-interventional and post interventional was statistically significant at p<0.05 level of significance .It was concluded that yoga help to reduced menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

 

Similarly ,it is supported by Rushika .P, Suresh V12 ,In study pretest postmenopausal women having 55.83% menopausal symptoms and mean score was 40.20±8.24.In post test post menopausal women having average 35.28%of menopausal symptoms and mean score was 25.40±5.73 after administration of yoga .The post menopausal mean of menopausal symptoms is significantly lesser than pre test score .The ‘t’ calculated value 13.690 is more than tabulated value 2.045at 0.05 level of significance .

 

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10.      Delavar MA, Babaee E, Hagni alimadi M. The effect of yoga technique on treatment of menopausal symptoms. World applied Science Journal2008;4(3) :439-443.

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Received on 13.09.2018         Modified on 12.11.2018

Accepted on 10.12.2018       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int.  J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(2):117-124.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00030.1