A Comparative Study to assess the Prevalence of Obesity among Secondary School Students of selected Urban and Rural areas in Jammu

 

Mr. J. C Frank

Associate Professor, Bee Enn College of Nursing, Jammu.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: jc.franklinnurse@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is one of the most common, yet among the most neglected, public health problems in both developed and developing countries. A comparative study was conducted to assess the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban and rural areas in Jammu. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students in urban area, to determine the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students in rural area, to compare the prevalence of obesity between the secondary school students from urban and rural area, to find the association between obesity among the secondary school students from urban area with selected demographic variables and to find the association between obesity among the secondary school students from rural area with selected demographic variables. The sample size was arbitrarily determined to be Urban 100 and Rural 100. The sample was selected by purposive sampling technique. The data was collected by using questionnaire and checklist developed by the researcher. The collected data was tabulated, graphed, analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics and the findings showed that the prevalence of obesity among Secondary School Students in urban area was 23 (23%) whereas the prevalence of obesity among Secondary School Students in rural area was 7 (7%). Regarding the association between demographic variables of prevalence of obesity among Secondary School Students in rural area was significant with selected demographic variables like sex, family history of obesity whereas regarding the association between demographic variables of prevalence of obesity among Secondary School Students in urban area was significant with selected demographic variables like sex, religion, duration of watching Television, socio-economic status of the family and previous knowledge regarding obesity. The study concluded that the existing prevalence regarding obesity among secondary school students of urban and rural areas was normal.

 

KEYWORDS: Obesity, Secondary school students

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

According to research, it is found that puberty is the most sensitive age during which one should practice healthy eating habits because during this age there are many changes that occur in the body to prepare one to enter to the adult age group(1). Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people worldwide. India, with 1.2 billion people is the second most populous country in the world and is currently experiencing rapid epidemiological transition(2). Under nutrition due to poverty which dominated in the past, is being rapidly replaced by obesity associated with affluence(3). Industrialization and urbanization also contribute to increased prevalence of obesity(4). Studies from different parts of India have provided evidence of the rising prevalence of obesity from 6% to 9%. According to the WHO World Health statistics report 2012, globally one in six adults are obese and nearly 2.8 million individuals die each year due to overweight or obesity. Due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality, obesity is now being recognized as a disease in its own right. Additionally, obesity is strongly associated with other metabolic disorders including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and even some cancers. Adolescent obesity also known as “New World Syndrome” is a global health challenge of the 21st century, with morbidity obesity affecting 5% of the country’s population(5). There is convincing evidence that obesity and related diseases are acquired among secondary school students. Various studies have revealed that one cannot have good health without proper healthy lifestyle. Therefore assessment of obesity among secondary school students should be done periodically(6).

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.     To determine the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students in urban area.

2.     To determine the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students in rural area.

3.     To compare the prevalence of obesity between the secondary school students from urban and rural area.

4.     To find the association between obesity among the secondary school students from urban area with their selected demographic variables.

5.     To find the association between obesity among the secondary school students from rural area with their selected demographic variables.

 

ASSUMPTIONS:

Obesity was common among secondary school children.

Prevalence of obesity was common among urban secondary school students.

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Review of literature was arranged under the following headings:

·       Studies on obesity.

·       Studies on prevalence of obesity among school students.

·       Studies on prevalence of obesity among school students in urban and rural area.

 

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

RESEARCH APPROACH:

The research approach using for this study was Quantitative approach.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN:

Descriptive study, comparative design.

 

SETTING OF THE STUDY:

The Study was conducted at Neel Kamal Secondary School Bantalab (Rural) and Model Raja Higher Secondary School Jammu (Urban).

 

TARGET POPULATION:

The target population was secondary school students.

 

ACCESSIBLE POPULATION:

The students of Neel Kamal Secondary School Bantalab (Rural) and Model Raja Higher Secondary School Jammu (Urban).

 

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

In this study, purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples.

 

SAMPLE:

The students of Neel Kamal Higher Secondary School, Bantalab (rural) and Model Raja Higher Secondary School, Jammu (urban) who fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as samples.

 

SAMPLE SIZE:

The sample size was arbitrarily determined to be Urban 100 and Rural 100.

 

CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION:

The samples will be selected based on the following inclusion and exclusion criteria:

 

INCLUSION CRITERIA:

The school students who were:

·         Studying in 8th – 10th class.

·         Willing to participate in the study.

·         Present at the time of data collection.

 

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

The school students who were:

·         Not able to read or listen.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT:

The structured instrument has three parts A, B and C.

 

PART A:

Socio demographic variables

 

 

PART B:

Height and weight.

 

PART C:

Body Mass Index

 

VALIDITY OF THE TOOL:

The content validity of the tool was obtained from subject experts. Based on valid suggestions, few questions were modified and the final tool was prepared. The tool was drafted in English

 

RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL:

Reliability was established through test-retest method.

 

PILOT STUDY:

The pilot study was conducted during the month of October at Government higher secondary school, Gharota (Rural) and St. Xavier higher secondary school, Jammu (Urban) among 10 students to evaluate the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students and to find out the feasibility of conducting the main study. The time taken to complete tool was found to be satisfactory in terms of simplicity and clarity. Pilot study helped the investigator to confirm the feasibility of carrying out the main study.

 

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE:

Prior permission was taken from the principals of concerned schools. Data collection was done on October 2017. The samples were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In urban area, majority of the students 37% belonged to 16 years of age, 52% were males, 50% were non vegetarian, 51% participate in outdoor activities, 30% were from lower middle class families and 59% had no family history of obesity. In rural area, majority of the students 47% belonged to 14 years of age, 52% were males, 52% were vegetarian, 70% participate in outdoor activities, 31% were from lower economic status families and 54% had no family history of obesity.

 

The prevalence of obesity among urban secondary school students was 23% and the prevalence of obesity among rural secondary school students was 7%.

 

The results revealed that there was significant association between obesity among urban area and selected demographic variables like sex, food habit, duration of watching television, socio-economic status of the family and previous knowledge regarding obesity.

 

The results revealed that there was significant association between obesity among rural area and selected demographic variables like sex and family history of obesity.

CONCLUSION:

The following conclusions were drawn from this study:

·       The prevalence of obesity was high (23%) among urban secondary school students.

·       There was significant association between prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of urban area with selected socio demographic variables like sex, food habit, duration of watching television, socio economic status of the family and previous knowledge regarding obesity.

·       There was significant association between prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of rural area with selected socio demographic variables like sex and family history of obesity.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Janssen et al., Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in schoolaged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obesity Review: 2005; 6:123-32

2.      Wang Y, Wang JQ. A comparison of different international references for the assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in different populations. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 2002; 56: 973-82

3.      Maretorell R at al., Overweight and obesity in school children from developing countries. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders: 2000; 24: 959-67.

4.      Yan Zou, et al., A comparison study on the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among city, township and rural area adults in China. BMJ open: 2015; 5(7).

5.      D.B. Kumah, et al., Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students in the Kumasi Metropolis. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism: 2015; 613207.

6.      Kanchana Nagendra. A community based study on prevalence of obesity among urban population of Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health: 2017 Jan;4(1):96-99.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 04.02.2019         Modified on 10.03.2019

Accepted on 16.04.2019       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int.  J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(2):114-116.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00029.5