A Study to Assess the Knowledge regarding Caesarean Section among pregnant women in selected Hospital, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh

 

Yakkala Veena Sravanthi1, P. Latha Teresa2

1B.Sc(N) Final Year Student, NRI College of Nursing, Guntur.

2Associate Professor, NRI College of Nursing, Guntur.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:  

 

ABSTRACT:

Introduction: One of the most important and beautiful periods of a woman’s life is pregnancy.  A pregnant woman is responsible to support the health of her unborn baby. The growing fetus depends entirely on the mother’s health for all its needs. It is a different experience for a woman and each pregnancy the woman experiences will be new and uniquely different. During this, a woman has to adopt physically socially and psychologically. Every woman dreams of having a perfect and safe birth1.The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of pregnant women regarding caesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at antenatal OPD of NRI General Hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur District. A total of 100 pregnant women were selected by purposive sampling technique. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: The results of the study showed that 81% of the women are having inadequate knowledge regarding caesarean section, 17% are having moderate knowledge and only 2% are having adequate knowledge regarding caesarean section. The chi-square test for type of family (c2=9.7) was found significant at 0.05 level.

 

KEYWORDS: Assess, Knowledge, Pregnant Women, Caesarean Section.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

One of the most important and beautiful periods of a woman’s life is pregnancy.  A pregnant woman is responsible to support the health of her unborn baby. The growing fetus depends entirely on the mother’s health for all its needs. It is a different experience for a woman and each pregnancy the woman experiences will be new and uniquely different. During this, a woman has to adopt physically socially and psychologically. Every woman dreams of having a perfect and safe birth1.

 

 

 

Labour and birth represent the end of pregnancy, the beginning of extrauterine life for the newborn and a charge in the lives of the family2. The World Health Organization (WHO, 1997) defines normal labour as,  low risk throughout, spontaneous in onset with the fetus presenting by the vertex, culminating in the mother and infant in good condition following birth3.

 

Caesarean section is a surgical procedure, whereby the fetuses after the end of 28th week is delivered through an incision on the abdominal and uterine walls4.

 

The baby is delivered from womb either by normal vaginal delivery or by operative procedure i.e. caesarean section. There are many factors that leads to caesarean section like identification of at Risk fetus before term, mother’s risk, elderly Primigravida, Cephalopelvic disproportion, Malpresentation etc5.

The incidence of caesarean sections steadily rising. During the last decade there has been two-to-three fold rise in the incidence from the initial rate of about 10 percent5.

 

Objectives:

1.    To assess the existing level of knowledge on caesarean section.

2.    To find the association between knowledge regarding caesarean section among pregnant women with their socio demographic variables.

 

Hypothesis:

Significant association will be there between knowledge of pregnant women regarding caesarean section with their socio-demographic variables.

 

Materials and Methods:

The present study was conducted by using quantitative research approach with descriptive design at Antenatal OPD, NRI General Hospital. A total of 100 sample was selected by Purposive sampling technique.

 

Criteria for Selection of the Sample:

·      The study includes pregnant women with less than 36 weeks of gestation.

·      Mother should not be in active phase of labour.

·      Mother is willing to participate in the study.

·      Mother is able to understand, speak, read and write Telugu.

·      Mother should be available at the time of data collection.

 

Development and Description of the tool :

Based on the objectives of the study a structured tool for collecting the data was developed by the researcher. The tool consists of two sections as Section ‘A’ and Section ‘B’.

 

Section - A:

Consists of questions on base line data i.e., Age, Education, Occupation, Income, Type of family. Source of information, Number of pregnancies and History of previous caesarean section.

 

Section - B:

Consists of 30 knowledge items on all the aspects of caesarean section. The items are closed ended multiple choice questions. Each question carries one correct answer with a score of ‘one’. Incorrect response carries a score of ‘zero’. The tool score for Section – ‘B’ is 30.

 

Score Interpretation:

The subjects with the score of ‘15’ or less in Section ‘B’ are considered as having ‘Inadequate Knowledge’scores between 16 to 24 considered as ‘Moderate Knowledge’ and score above 25 is given as Adequate knowledge.

 

Content Validity:

The prepared tool along with the objectives of the study was submitted to subject experts i.e., one Doctor and two Nursing personnel in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing. The suggestion of the experts were incorporated in the final preparation of the tool.

 

Reliability:

The reliability of the tool was established by split half method. The obtained ‘r’ value was 0.9. So it represents that the tool is highly reliable.

 

Pilot Study:

Pilot study was conducted on 10 Antenatal women who are coming to Antenatal OPD at Samatha Super Speciality Hospital, Mangalagiri, Guntur district for a period of 2 days. These subjects are not included in the main study.

 

Data Collection Procedure:

A written permission was obtained from the hospital authority and the consent also collected from the subjects who are participating in the study. The researcher has informed the sample about the purpose of the study and requested participant’s cooperation during the study.

 

Data was collected in the 1st and 2nd weeks of April 2016. A total of 100 sample were participated in the study.

 

Plan for Data Analysis:

The data are analysed based on the objectives and hypothesis formulated for the study. The analysis was done by using descriptive, inferential statistics. Percentages, frequencies mean, standard deviation and chi-square tests are used to analyse the data.

 

Results:

Section: A

Characteristics of the study sample.

Age:

Out of 100 pregnant women, majority (65 i.e., 65%) of them are in the age group of 21 to 25 years, followed by 18(18%) who are in age group of less than 20 years, 10 (10%) are in the age group of 26 to 30 years and 7 (7%) are in the age group of more than 31 years.

 

Educational Qualifications:

Out of 100 pregnant women majority 54(54%) have studied Degree and above, followed by 17(17%) pregnant women studied intermediate, 15(15%) who studied 6th to 10th class, 8(8%) were studied 1 to 5th class, and only 6(6%) of pregnant women knows to read and write.

 

Occupation:

Majority of pregnant women i.e., 39(39%) were house wives, followed by 36(36%) of pregnant women were private employees, 16 (16%) were government employees and 9(9%) were daily wage.

 

Income:

When it comes to income, 35 (35%) of pregnant women earns less than Rs.5,000/- per month, followed by 26(26%) having income of Rs.5001 to Rs.10,000, 24(24%) of pregnant women earns Rs.10,001 to Rs.15,000/- and 15(15%) earns more than Rs.15,000/- per month.

 

Type of Family:

Majority of the pregnant women i.e., 59(59%) belongs to nuclear family, followed by 27(27%) belongs to joint family and 14(14%) lives in extended family.

 

Source of Information:

Out of 100 pregnant women, majority i.e., 47(47%) of them gets information through T.V., followed by 25 (25%) pregnant women, through Health personnel, 24(24%) pregnant women gets through News Paper and only 4(4%) pregnant women gets information from Magazines.

 

No. of Pregnancy:

Nearly half of i.e., 49(49%) have only 1 pregnancy, 37 (37%) of them had 2 pregnancies, 12(12%) had 3 pregnancies and 2(2%) of pregnant women had 4 and more than 4 pregnancies.

 

History of Previous Cesarean Section:

Majority of the pregnant women i.e., 61(61%) have no history of previous caesarean section and 39 (39%) of pregnant women had history of previous cesarean section.

 

Section B: Knowledge Level of Pregnant Women Regarding Caesarean Section.

‘The Results’ of the study revealed that, majority of the participants 81(81%) of them are having inadequate knowledge regarding cesarean section, 17(17%) are having moderate knowledge and only 2(2%) are having adequate knowledge.

 

Table 1: The mean knowledge score of the sample with standard deviation.

S. No.

Variables

Mean

Standard Deviation

1

Knowledge

12.6

3.81

 

The mean knowledge score of sample is 12.6 with standard deviation of 3.81.

 

Table 2:  Knowledge Scores of Pregnant Women Regarding Caesarean Section.

S. No.

Knowledge Score

Frequency

Percentage

1

Inadequate Knowledge

81

81%

2

Moderate Knowledge

17

17%

3

Adequate Knowledge

02

02%

 

The values in the above table reveals that, majority of pregnant women have inadequate knowledge (81 i.e., 81%) followed by moderate knowledge (17 i.e., 17%) and Adequate knowledge of only (02 i.e., 2%) of pregnant women.

 

Table 3: Association of Demographic Variables of Pregnant Women Regarding Caesarean Section.                                               N=100

S. No.

Demographic Variables

Chi-square Value

Table Value

Degree of Freedom (df)

01

Age

7.34 NS

0.2903

6

02

Education

3.575 NS

0.393

8

03

Occupation

5.623 NS

0.4667

6

04

Income

4.539 NS

0.6041

0.6041

05

Type of Family

9.742*

0.0450

04

06

Source of Information

11.401 NS

0.0767

6

07

No of pregnancy

2.518 NS

0.8665

6

08

History of previous cesarean Section

2.242 NS

0.3259

2

* - Indicates significant at 0.05 level

NS – Indicates non-significant at 0.05 level.

 

The chi-square values computed between knowledge of pregnant women with regard to cesarean section and their type of family of (c2 = 9.742) are found to be significant at 0.05 level.

 

Discussion:

The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the knowledge of pregnant women regarding cesarean section. The data was collected and analysed.

 

In the present study 81 respondents out of 100 had inadequate knowledge regarding caesarean section. This is supported by the results of the study conducted by AO Ashimi Et.al among pregnant women which revealed that majority 222(59.1%) of pregnant women, out of 401 had inadequate knowledge.

 

Conclusions:

1.    Majority of the pregnant women have inadequate knowledge with regard to caesarean section.

2.    Significant Association is there between the type of family with the knowledge level of the sample.

 

Hence there is a necessity to impart knowledge on caesarean section to pregnant women.

 

References:

1.       Lowdermilk, D.C., & Perry S.E. (2001). Maternity Women’s Health Care, 7th Edition, Mosbay, St. Louis London.

2.       B.T. Basavanthappa. (2006). Midwifery & Reproductive Health Nursing, 1st Edition, Jaypee, pp-296.

3.       Myles. (2009). Text Book for Midwives, 15th Edition, Elsevier, PP-459.

4.       NimaBhasker. (2015). Midwifery and Obstetrical Nursing, 2nd Edition, Emmess. PP 515.

5.       Annamma Jacob. A Comprehensive Text Book of Midwifery and Gynecological Nursing, 3rd Edition, Jaypee. PP 396 – 399.

6.       AO AshimiEt. Al. Study to Assess the Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women to Caesarean Section – “Journal of the West African College of Surgeons” – Year 2013 Apr – June; 3(2) : 46 – 61.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 26.10.2018       Modified on 18.11.2018

Accepted on 03.12.2018       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int.  J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(1):28-30.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00007.6