Effectiveness of Programmed Teaching on Levels of Knowledge and Expressed Practices regarding First Aid Management among Primary School Teachers

 

Ms. Sumithra M*, Ms. Dhanalakshmi N.

Sri Narayani College of Nursing, Thirumalai Kodi, Vellore-55, Tamilnadu.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:  dhanalh73@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: “Children are the wealth of tomorrow. Take care of them if your wish to have a strong India, ever ready to meet various challenges” said Jawaharlal Nehru. Knowledge of first aid, which constitutes life-saving treatment for injuries or unexpected illness is important for every individual especially children. Hence the knowledge of first aid among school teachers is essential for undertaking measures to prevent them. Materials and Methods: This study adopted a quantitative approach and the research design was pre experimental one group pre and Post-test design. Non probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 30 primary school teachers. Data collected using self-administered questionnaire to assess the levels of knowledge and expressed practices. It contains a total of 40 questions under various domains. Results: The findings of the study showed that regarding the effectiveness of programmed teaching the pre-test level of knowledge mean score 18.9±2.99 and the post-test level of knowledge mean score was 25.3 ± 3.15 the mean difference of pre and post-test knowledge was 6.4 the calculated paired ‘t’ test value was significant at p<0.05 level. The pre-test of expressed practices mean score was 5.5 ± 0.67 and the post-test mean score was 7.2 ± 0.65 the mean difference of pre and post-test was 1.7 The calculated paired ‘t’ value 15.6 higher than the table value 2, which is significant at p<0.05 level. The level of knowledge statistical outcome of ‘chi’- square analysis, was to find out the association between the post-test levels of knowledge and selected demographic variables. It reveals that, residence, sex, teaching experience, are statistically significant at p<0.05 level. The ‘chi’-square analysis to find out the association between post-test levels of expressed practices and selected demographic variables, reveals that sex, residence, teaching experience, are statistically significantat p<0.05 levels. Conclusion: The finding of the study concluded that there was significant increase in the level of knowledge and good expressed practice of primary school teachers. After programmed teaching using video on first aid management among primary school teachers, the level of knowledge increased and expressed practices improved which shows the effectiveness of programmed teaching.

 

KEYWORDS: Effectiveness, Programmed teaching, Knowledge, Expressed practice, First aid, Management, Primary School Teachers.

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

A child’s world centre’s on the home, school and the community. The biggest threats to children’s health are these places. So these must be safest home, school and community. First aid measures are the greatest way to save the children under some health problems and injuries, because the future development of our children depends on their adoring good health today (Thomas 2015). [7]

 

First aid is the treatment of any injury or abrupt illness before professional medical help can be provided. The aim is to prevent the condition getting worse, safeguarding fast recovery and preserving the valuable human life. Most injuries are minor and can be treated without medical care such as bruises, sprains, minor fractures, and strain. The knowledge of first aid, when appropriately applied, can bridge the gap between temporary or permanent injury, rapid recovery, or long-term disability. [5]

 

Children spend most of the time in school under the direct supervision of teachers. They are also unprotected to various types of epidemiological factors in the school, which influence their existing and future state of health (ShobhaMasih 2014). [5]

 

Teachers definitely have an important part in the protection of the health and safety of schoolchildren. However, this role can only be properly attained if teachers are prepared with the needed skills. Therefore, proper in-service trainingfor teachers in child protection is of major importance. Consequently, the assessment of school teachers' knowledge regarding first-aid measures is vital to provide the health personnel with appropriate information about the educational needs, which can help them to plan and organize health education training programs to enhance teachers’ awareness (Award S. AL-Samghan 2015). [1]

 

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

“School should be a safe place for all students to learn and play and it is jobof each teacher and administrator to ensure that safety”.

Substantial part of the world’s population 35–45% constitutes young children. Children are liable toget accidents and accidental poisoning due to their development and learning process. Almost 40% Indians are below 15 years of age and the Tamil Nadu total population for children is 62,405,679 (B. Muneeswari  (2014). [2]

 

Injuries are the main cause of illness, especially for primary school children. Schools are the one of the common places of accidents.  Knowledge on first aid among school teachers is very vital to help a casualty as soon as injuries occur so that life could be saved (ShobhaMasih 2014). [5]

 

The school nurse or any other health worker would not continuously be at the school when first aid treatment is needed, and also when children have accidents away from the school; consequently it is necessary that teachers and other staff should be properly taught to take care of the minor accidents that occur in and around the school. The concern of school teacher is also to provide a first aid care to children at school campus. Hence, they should be trained effectively to deliver health care to injured children in emergency. [5]

 

As a nurse educator she has a greater role to educate the school teachers regarding various aspect of health like hand washing, waste disposal, prevention of accidents, safety needs and first aid. Since the researcher selected one among them. She needs to contribute a small portion to this life saving measures through this Major study. So let’s all (Nurses, teachers and Public) take it as a challenge to save the life and promote the wellbeing of children and community who are tomorrow’s kings and queens.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A quantitative approach with pre experimental one group pre and post-test design was used to achieve objectives of the study. The study was conducted at selected government primary schools, Anaicut block, Vellore. The samples in this study include primary school teachers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Sample size for the study was 30. Permission was obtained from institutional head of The Chief Education Officer, collectorate, Vellore. The primary school teachers were informed regarding the research study and verbal consent was obtained initially. Pre-test was done on day one using self-administered questionnaire followed by intervention was administered as programmed teaching method which composed of lecture and video clipping. The post-test was conducted after 4 weeks of intervention by administering same structured knowledge questionnaire and check list for expressed practices.

 

Description of Tool:

Consists of Section A: Demographic data., Section B: Knowledge questionnaire. It consists of 30 knowledge questions related to causes, signs and symptoms, types, and management of first aid management.

 

Score Interpretation:

The tool consists of 30 questions each correct response was awarded a score of one (1) mark and wrong response was given a score of zero (0)

Inadequate   - < 50 %

Moderately adequate - 51-75 %

Adequate    - >75%

 

Section C:

Expressed practices on first aid management

It consists of 10 items of expressed practice questionnaire, each correct answer carries one (1) mark incorrect answers carries zero (0) marks.

Scoring Interpretation    Percentage

·        Poor              0-3        <50%

·        Average        4-6        51-75%

·        Good            7-10       >75%

 

RESULTS:

The demographic characteristics of primary school teachers reveals that the more than half of the teachers 19(63%) were in the age group of 31-40 years, whereas 8(27%) were in the age group of 51-60 years, 2(7%) and1 (3%) were in the age group of 20-30 years. Majority of teachers according to their gender shows that 28 (93%) are females and 2(7%) are males. Half of the primary schoolteachers 16 (53%) are post graduate, 12 (40%) are graduate and 2(7%) have studied upto diploma in education. With regard to residential area 26(87%) primary schoolteachers were from urban area and 4 (33%) were from rural area.

 

In relation to teaching experience of teachers, more than half of them 19(63%) are15 years of experience 6(20%) 6-10 years of experience 3 (10%) have 5 years of experience and 2(7%) with 11-15 years of teaching experience.  With regard to sources of Information, less than half of the primary schoolteachers 13(43%) received information from health professionals, 6 (20%) got information through books, magazine or friends and relatives, around 5(17%) of them got information through mass media regarding first aid management.

 

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of pre and post-test levels of knowledge regarding first aid management.

 

Levels of Knowledge

Pre-test

Post-test

No

%

No

%

Inadequate

17

57

-

-

Moderately adequate

9

30

2

7

Adequate

4

13

28

93

 

Table 1 represents that in the pre-test 17 (57%) teachers had inadequate knowledge, 9 (30%) had moderately adequate knowledge and 4 (13%) had adequate knowledge on first aid management. With regarding to the post-test 28 (93%) of the teachers had adequate knowledge, 2 (7%) had moderately adequate knowledge and none of the teachers had inadequate knowledge.

 

Table: 2 Frequency and percentage distribution of pre and post-test levels of expressed practices regarding first aid management

Expressed practices

Pre-test

Post-test

No

%

No

%

Poor

17

56

-

-

Average

10

33

8

27

Good

03

10

22

73

 

Table 2 represents that in pre-test half of the teachers 17 (53%) had poor expressed practices 10 (33%) had average and 3 (10%) had good practices. In the post-test 22 (73%) of teachers had good expressed practices and 8(27%) had average expressed practices regarding first aid management.

Table 3 Mean, standard deviation and paired ‘t’ value of pre and post-test levels of knowledge regarding first aid management among primary school teachers.

Levels of knowledge

Mean

SD

Mean difference

Paired ‘t’ test

Pre-test

18.9

2.99

 

6.4

 

20.5*

Post-test

25.3

3.15

Statistically significant (p<0.05)

 

Table 3 represents that the pre-test knowledge mean score was 18.9, standard deviation 2.99 and the post-test knowledge mean score was 25.3, standard deviation 3.15. The mean difference of pre and post-test knowledge was 6.4. As the calculated paired „t‟ test value is 20.5 was higher than the table value 3.66 (p< 0.05) Hence there was significant improvement in knowledge regarding first aid management. Therefore hypothesis 1 is accepted.

 

Table 4 Mean standard deviation and paired ‘t’test value of pre and post levels of expressed practices regarding first aid management.

Levels of expressed practices

Mean

SD

Mean difference

Paired ‘t’ test

Pre-test

5.5

0.67

 

1.7

 

15.6*

Post-test

7.2

0.65

Statistically significant (p<0.05)

 

Table 13 represents that the pre-test expressed practices mean score was 5.5, standard deviation 0.67 and the post-test mean score was 7.2, standard deviation 0.65, the mean difference of pre and post-test was 1.7. The calculated paired “t” value 15.6 was higher than the table value 3.66, which interpret that there was increase in the levels of expressed practices on first aid management is significant at p<0.05 level. Hence H2 was accepted.

 

DISCUSSION:

The first objective of the study was to assess the pre-test levels of knowledge and expressed practices regarding first aid management among primary school teachers. 

A self-administered questionnaires schedule was used to assess the levels of knowledge among primary school teacher regarding first aid management. In the pre-test 17(57%) teachers had inadequate knowledge, 9(30%) teachers had moderately adequate knowledge and 4(13%) had adequate knowledge regarding first aid management.

 

A checklist was used to assess the levels of expressed practices regarding first aid management among primary school teachers, which reveals that the pre-test17(56%) teachers had poor expressed practices, 10(33%) had average expressed practices and 3(10%) had good expressed practices regarding first aid management.

 

This study was supported by Umarani J (2014) conducted adescriptive study to assess the knowledge of primary school teachers regarding first aid for common ailments in children at selected Primary schools, Mangalore. The results mainly found that 26% teachers had inadequate level of knowledge, 71% had moderately adequate level of knowledge, 3% had an adequate level of knowledge on first aid.

 

These cond objective study was to assess the effectiveness of programmed teaching on levels of knowledge and expressed practices regarding first aid management among primary school teachers.

The pretest knowledge mean score was 18.9 and standard deviation 2.99 and the post-test mean score was 25.3 and standard deviation 3.15. The mean difference of pre and posttest knowledge was 6.4. The calculated paired ‘t’ test value (20.5) was higher than the table value 3.8, which is significant at P<0.05 level. It shows that the programmed teaching is effective, hence hypothesis 1 is accepted.

 

The pretest expressed practice means score 5.5 & standard deviation was 0.67and thepost-test mean score 7. 2 and standard deviation was 0.65. The mean difference of pre and post test was1.7. The calculated paired ttest value 15.6 was greater than the table value 3.66 which is significant at p<0.05 levels. It is interpreted that there is significant increase in the level of expressed practice of primary school teachers. Hence H1 hypothesis was accepted.

 

The above study findings are supported by Shobha Masih (2014) conducted a Quasi-experimental study with one group pre- and post-test research design among the primary school teachers of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. Fifty primary school teachers were selected by nonprobability convenient sampling. Data were collected by knowledge questionnaire (maximum possible score 42) and self-reporting checklist (maximum possible score 23). Result showed that majority (94%) of the teachers were female. Paired sample t-test revealed that the mean posttest knowledge score regarding first aid management of selected minor injuries was significantly higher (34.76±4.35) than that of mean pretest knowledge score (27.32±5.73) (P < 0.005); mean posttest practice score was significantly higher (18.52±2.63) then mean pretest practice score (14.52±2.39) (P<0.005). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge score and practice score of participants (r = 0.9; P < 0.001).

 

The third objective of the study was to find out the association between post-test levels of knowledge and expressed practices regarding first aid management among primary school teachers and selected demographic variables.

The ‘chi’ square test was used to find out the association between levels of knowledge and selected demographic variables. The result reveals that sex, residence, teaching experience, are associated at p<0.05 level, whereas age in years, education, marital status, number of children, previous knowledge regarding first aid management, sources of information are not associated. Hence the hypothesis 2 was accepted.

 

The chi-square analysis was done to find out the association between posttest levels of expressed practices and selected demographic variables. The result reveals that residence, teaching experience are association at p<0.05 levels whereas age, sex, education, number of children, pervious knowledge of first aid management, sources of information, are not associated. Hence the hypothesis 2 was accepted.

 

CONCLUSION:

The present study assessed the effectiveness of programmed teaching on levels of knowledge and expressed practice regarding first aid management among primary schools teachers at Anaicut, Vellore. Before and after programmed teaching, the levels of knowledge and expressed practices were assessed. The results showed that, there was a improvement in total knowledge score and expressed practices regarding first aid management of primary school teachers.

 

REFERENCE:

1.     Award S. AL-Samghan, S.B.F.M., Faisal M. AL-Sharani, S.B.F.M., Fathima H. AL-Shahrani, D.I.P.N (2015). Primary School Teachers' Knowledge about First-Aid. Med. J. Cairo Univ., Vol. 83, No. 1, June: 541-547.

2.     B. Muneeswari (2014). A study to assess the effectiveness of planned health teaching programme using child-to –child approach on knowledge of selected first aid measures among school children in selected schools at Dharapuram in Tamil Nadu, India. GJMEDPH; Vol. 3, No.1.

3.     Joseph N, Narayanan T, Bin Zakaria S, Nair AV, Belayutham L, Subramanian AM, Gopakumar KG (2015). Awareness, attitudes and practices of first aid among school teachers in Mangalore, south India.J Prim Health Care, Dec 1;7(4):274-81.

4.     Shambhavi, Shanthi S, Vinutha M D’Souza (2014). Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on First Aid Management of selected Emergencies among School Teachers. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research, Vol 1, Issue (2).

5.     ShobhaMasih, Rajesh Kumar Sharma1, Atul Kumar (2014).  Knowledge and practice of primary school teachers about first aid management of selected minor injuries among children. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health | Oct-Dec, Vol 4, Issue 4.

6.     Sönmez Y, Uskun E, Pehlivan A (2014).Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample.Turk PediatriArs.Sep 1; 49(3):238-46.

7.     Thomas, Maria Therese (2015). A study to assess the effectiveness of self-Instructional module on knowledge regarding selected first aid measures among primary teachers in Eranakulam Dist. International Journal of Medicine and Health Profession Research. 2(1), 17 - 31.

8.     Umarani J, Renita Priya Dsouza, Priya Reshma Aranha, Shilpa G.S (2014). First Aid of Minor Ailments: Knowledge of Primary School Teachers. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research, Vol 2, Issue (4).

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 28.08.2018       Modified on 06.09.2018

Accepted on 04.10.2018       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int.  J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(1): 09-12.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00003.9