A Study To Assess The Knowledge Of Nursing College Students Regarding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome In Selected College At Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh

 

Choragudi Srujana1, Rayapu Vasundhara2, Jonnalagadda Miryani3

1B.Sc (N) Final Year Student, NRI College of Nursing, Guntur.

2Principal cum Professor, NRI College of Nursing, Guntur.

3Lecturer, NRI College of Nursing, Chinnakakani, Guntur.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: jonnalagaddamiryani@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder among women in reproductive age group, in which hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with periods and make it difficult to get pregnant. If it is not treated, it can lead to serious health problems over a period of time. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to control the symptoms and prevent long term problems1. So, nurses are in a position to provide comprehensive care to adolescents affected with PCOS. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of nursing college students regarding PCOS and to associate the level of knowledge with their demographic variables. Methodology: Quantitative approach and descriptive design was used to assess the knowledge regarding PCOS, in a selected College of nursing in April 2018. Totally ninety two male and female students from III and IV year B. Sc (N) were selected by using convenient sampling technique. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: Among 92 nursing college students, 86 (93.47%) students had inadequate knowledge regarding PCOS and significant association was found between the knowledge of PCOS with their demographic variables like previous knowledge about PCOS (χ2=472.08) and family history with PCOS (χ2=12.53) at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Majority of the nursing college students had inadequate knowledge with regard to polycystic ovarian syndrome. Significant association is there between the knowledge of nursing college students on PCOS and their previous knowledge about PCOS and family history of PCOS.

 

KEYWORDS: Knowledge, Nursing students, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Women are the building stones of a society. A woman owns the privilege of giving birth, raising up a family and thus creating the basic unit of society.

 

The unhealthy food habits and lack of exercise leads to many adverse effects on the body of a woman during the reproductive phase. Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one such disease which puts question mark on the womenhood by taking from her the right of motherhood2. Most of women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. That is why it is called polycystic ovarian syndrome. The cyst are not harmful but leads to hormonal imbalance. It can cause problems with periods and make it difficult to get pregnant. PCOS also may caus unwanted changes in the way the woman looks. If it is not treated, overtime it can lead to serious health problems such as diabetes and heart disease3.

 

It affects 5% to 10% of women in their reproductive years. Researchers has suggested that PCOS may be related to increased insulin production. India has witnessed about 30% rise in PCOS cases in the last couple of years. The prevalence has been increasing in the adolscent population. In more than 40% of cases, PCOS is associated with obesity, as well as impaired glucose toleranc, type-2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

 

Although there is no cure for PCOS, there are several ways to treat and manage the condition. If a girl is overweight, weight loss can be very effective in lessening many of the health conditions associated with PCOS. Healthy food habits and exercise helps to combat the weight gain4.

 

Lack of knowledge and life style changes are considered to be the major factors leading to this phenomenon. There is a need to increase awareness among women, to avoid major cases of fertility problems in the future. A nurse holds a critical role in health care that goes beyond the day to day duties. Nurses are in a position to provide comprehensive care to adolescents affected with the syndrome. Essential elements of nursing practice should be included in the nursing education. So, upgrading the knowledge regarding PCOS to nursing students will enhance the adolescent girls to modify their lifestyle and reduce the risk.

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.    To assess the knowledge of nursing college students regarding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

2.    To find out the association between the selected variables and knowledge of nursing college students.

 

HYPOTHESES:

H1: There will be significant association between the knowledge of nursing college students with regard to polycystic ovarian syndrome (POCS) and their age.

 

H2: Association will be significant between knowledge of nursing college students on polycystic ovarian syndrome and their gender

 

H3: Significant association will be there between the knowledge of nursing college students regarding polycystic ovarian syndrome and their religion.

 

H4: Association will be significant between the knowledge of nursing college students regarding polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and their father’s occupation.

 

H5: There will be significant association between the knowledge of nursing college students regarding polycystic ovarian syndrome and their mother’s occupation.

 

H6: Significant association will be there between the knowledge of nursing college students on polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and their previous knowledge about PCOS.

 

H7: Association between knowledge of nursing college students on polycystic ovarian syndrome (POCS) and their source of information will be significant.

 

H8: There will be significant association between knowledge of nursing college students regarding polycystic ovarian syndrome and their family history of PCOS.

 

METHODOLOGY:

The present study is conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive design at a selected college of nursing in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. The target population for the present study are nursing college students studying III and IV year B.Sc nursing course. A sample of 92 nursing college students studying III and IV year B.Sc nursing are selected by using convenient sampling technique. The sample included students studying III and IV year B.Sc nursing, studying in selected college of nursing, available at the time of data collection and willing to participate in the study. Students studying I and II year B.Sc nursing are excluded from the study.

 

A structured tool for collecting the data is developed by the investigator. The tool consists of two sections-section A, section B.

 

Section A consists of questions on personal and baseline characteristics of the subjects such as: Age, Gender, Religion, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Previous knowledge about PCOS, Source of information, Family history of PCOS.

 

Section B consists of 34 knowledge items on all the aspects of PCOS. The items are closed ended multiple choice questions. Each correct response is allotted a score ‘one’ and score ‘zero’ for each incorrect response. Maximum score for section B is 34.

 

The subjects with the scores 17 or less in section B are considered as having ‘inadequate knowledge’; scores between 18 to 25 as having ‘moderate knowledge’ and scores between 26 to 34 as having ‘adequate knowledge’.

Content Validity:

The prepared tool along with the objectives of the study was submitted to three subject experts in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Among them, one is a doctor and two are senior faculty in the field of OBG Nursing. The suggestions of the experts are incorporated in the final tool.

 

Reliability:

The reliability was established by using split half method. It is found that, “r” value of knowledge items is 0.91. The obtained score indicated that, the tool is highly reliable.

 

Pilot study:

pilot study is conducted on 10 students studying III and IV year B.Sc nursing. The participants have shown interest to complete the tool. It took 25 minutes for them to complete the entire tool and no difficulties are expressed by them. These subjects are not included in the main study.

 

Ethical Consideration:

Ethical clearance is taken from the institutional ethical committee.

 

Data Collection Procedure:

A written permission is obtained from the Principal of College of Nursing, and from the Co-ordinators of III and IV year B.Sc. Nursing. The investigator informed the sample about the purpose of the study and requested for their cooperation during the study. Data are collected during the last week of April 2018. Totally 92 both male and female III and IV year B.Sc. (N) students have answered the questionnaire.

 

Plan for Analysis:

The data are analysed based on objectives and hypothesis of the study by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequencies, Percentages, Mean, Standard Deviation and Chi-Square tests are used to analyse the data.

 

RESULTS:

Section-I–Characteristics of the Study Sample.

Age: out of 92 nursing students, majority (73 i.e. 79.35%) of the respondents are in the age group of 20 years and above, followed by 12 (13.04 %) who are in the age group of 19 years, and 7 (7.61%) are in the age group of 18 years.

 

Gender:

Majority of the subjects (54 i.e. 58.70 %) are females and the remaining 38 (41.30%) are males.

 

 

 

Religion:

Out of 92, 45 (48.91%) respondents are Christians, 37 (40.22%) are Hindus and 10 (10.87%) are Muslims.

 

Occupation of Father:

When it comes to occupation of fathers, more than 35% (33 i.e., 35.87%) of fathers are coolies, 27 (29.35%) fathers are doing job, 17 (18.48%) fathers are not working and 15 (16.30%) are doing business.

 

Occupation of Mother:

Majority of the mothers of nursing students (45 i.e., 48.91%) are house wives, followed by mothers who are working women (28 i.e.30.43%), coolies (15 i.e.16.30%) and doing business (4 i.e.,4.34%).

 

Previous knowledge about PCOS:

Out of 92 students, 64 (68.48%) had previous knowledge about PCOS and 29 (31.52%) did not have the previous knowledge. Out of these 64 respondents, who had previous knowledge, 39 (61.91%) have learnt from their teachers, followed by 9 (14.28%) who have learnt from their friends, 6 (9.52%) have learnt from newspapers, 6 (9.52%) learnt from health personnel, 2 (3.18%) have learnt from T.V, and 1 (1.59%) learnt from other sources.

 

Family history of PCOS:

Out of 92 students, 17 (18.48 %) had a family history of PCOS and 75 (81.52 %) did not have any family history of PCOS.Out of these 17 respondents who have the family history of PCOS, 11 (64.70 %) are their sisters, 3 (17.65%) are their mothers and 3 (17 65%) are their aunties

 

Section-II- Knowledge Questions on PCOS.

Out of 92 respondents, 65 (70.65%) knew that “Cysts are nothing but the sacs filled with fluid like substance”. Thirty-four (36.96%) respondents knew that “Functional cysts are the cysts which form cyclically and disappear on their own”. Half of the respondents (46 i.e. 50%) knew that “Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a reproductive endocrine disorder with multiple small cysts in the ovaries”. Twenty-nine (31.52%) respondents knew that “Stein Leventhal” is the first one to describe poly cystic ovarian syndrome”. Only 19 (20.65%) respondents knew that “Antral follicles of the ovaries become cysts in PCOS”.

 

Thirty five (38.04%) respondents knew that, “Changes in life style and stress is the main reason for increased incidence of PCOS”. Forty two (45.66%) respondents knew that, “PCOS is common in reproductive age group”.Only 23 (25%) students knew that “Women with HIV do not fall in the high-risk group for developing PCOS”.Twenty seven (29.35%) knew that “Females who are physically inactive, eat more junk foods and obese are more prone for developing insulin resistance”.

 

Twenty four (26.09%) respondents knew that “Sleep apnoea develops as a result of accumulation of excessive fatty tissue in the neck of the women with PCOS.Twenty one (22.83%) knew that “Sudden kidney failure is not a complication of PCOS”. Most of the nursing college students (68 i.e., 73.91%) knew that “oestrogen and progesterone are female hormones”. Only 14 students (15.22%) knew that “Increased production of estrogen and testosterone are the main reasons for the formation of multiple cysts in the ovaries”.

 

Thirty one students (33.69%) knew that “The size of the ovaries will increase in PCOS”. Only 29 (31.52%) respondents knew that “Anovulation” will occur in a woman with PCOS.Twenty-seven (29.35%) knew that “Hair will not grow longer due to the changes in the hormones with regard to PCOS”.Twenty (27.74%) respondents answered correctly that “The reason for the formation of more pimples in PCOS is the stimulation of sebaceous glands by testosterone”.Only 18 (19.56%) respondents knew that “Mid menstrual periods continue one hour to one day” is not a correct statement with regard to types of menstrual irregularities in PCOS. On the whole, only 20 (27.74%) knew that “dark patches like skin lesions are seen on the skin of a women with PCOS”.With regard to psychological status of women with PCOS exactly half of the respondents knew (46 i. e.50%) that “Women with PCOS will have the psychological symptoms like depression and anxiety”.Thirty five (38.04%) respondents knew that “The women with PCOS will become obese. Thirty nine (42.39%) knew that “Both hormone imbalance and problems in the ovulation are the main reasons for infertility in a woman with PCOS”.

 

Majority of the nursing college students (42 i.e. 45.65%) have answered correctly that “Physical examination, pelvic examination, ultrasonography, blood examination are the diagnostic tests of the PCOS”. Thirty three (35.87%) have answered that “The main reason for blood examination in PCOS is done for the estimation of male hormone”. Less than half of the respondents (33 i.e. 35.87%) have correctly answered that “The life style modifications like increasing exercises, healthy eating habits, losing weight, and avoiding smoking are needed for women with PCOS”.

 

Twenty eight (30. 43%) students knew that “Giving progesterone to a woman with PCOS is important to induce menstruation in amenorrhoeic woman”. Twenty-one (22.82%) have answered that “The purpose of giving combined oral pills to a woman with PCOS is to normalise the levels of testosterone”. Thirty six (39.14%) respondents knew that “Spironolactone is an anti–androgen”. Only 18 (19.56%) respondents knew that “Anti- androgens are given to treat pimples and body hair growth in woman with PCOS”. Twenty-seven (29.35%) respondents knew that “Metformin’ is the drug given for increasing the insulin sensitivity in a woman with PCOS”. Very few number of respondents (15 i.e., 16.30%) knew that “Clomiphene citrate is the drug given to induce ovulation in a woman with PCOS”.

 

Twenty (21.74%) have answered that “Creation of 10 perforations in the ovary using cautery or laser is known as ovarian drilling.Thirty (32.61%) respondents have answered correctly that “The purpose of doing ovarian drilling in case of PCOS is to help ovulation by decreasing androgen production”. Thirty (32.6%) respondents have answered correctly that “food items like Almonds, sweet potato, fish, tomatoes, help to prevent the symptoms of PCOS”.

 

Table 1: The Mean Knowledge Score of The Sample With Standard Deviation                                                                                      N=92

S. No.

Variables

Mean

Standard Deviation

1.

Knowledge

11.52

3.44

 

The mean knowledge score of sample is 11.52 with a standard deviation of 3.44.

 

Table 2: Distribution of Sample By Their Level Of Knowledge with regard to PCOS.                                                                                              N=92

S. No.

Level of Knowledge

Frequency

Percentage

1.

2.

3.

Inadequate Knowledge

Moderate Knowledge

Adequate Knowledge

86

6

0

93.47%

6.52%

0%

 

The values in the above table reveal that, majority of students have inadequate knowledge (86 i.e. 93.47%); very negligible number of students have moderate knowledge (6 i.e. 6.52%); none of the students have adequate knowledge.


 

Section-III Chi-Square Value Showing Association Between The Knowledge Of Nursing College Students On Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome With Their Selected Variables.                                                                                                                                                      N=92

S.NO

Demographic variables

Chi-Square value

Table value

Degree of freedom (df)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Age

Gender

Religion

Occupation of father

Occupation of mother

Previous knowledge about PCOS.

Family history with PCOS.

1.42NS

0.29NS

3.36NS

1.85NS

0.08NS

472.08*

12.53*

12.59

5.99

12.59

12.59

12.59

5.99

5.99

6

2

6

6

6

2

2

‘*’–indicates significant at 0.05 level of significance.

“NS”–indicates non-significant at 0.05 level of significance.

 


The Chi-Square values computed between knowledge of nursing college students with regard to PCOS and their previous knowledge about PCOS (χ2=472.08) and the family history of PCOS (χ2=12.53) are found to be significant at 0.05 level of significance. Hence the research hypothesis H6, H7, are retained and null hypothesis H06, H 07 rejected.

 

DISCUSSION:

The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the knowledge of nursing college students on polycystic ovarian syndrome. The results revealed that the majority of students are in the age group of 20 years and above and 45 (48.91%) are Christians. This is supported by the results of a study conducted by sunanda et.al among nursing students in manglore, which revealed that majority (85%) of the students were in the age group of 21-25 years and 75% were Christians5.

 

In the present study 86 respondents out of 92 (93.47%) had in adequate knowledge regarding PCOS. This is supported by the results of the study conducted by sunanda.et.al which revealed that most of the students (114), out of 150 had average knowledge on PCOS.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

1.    Majority of the nursing college students have inadequate knowledge with regard to polycystic ovarian syndrome.

2.    Significant association is there between the knowledge of nursing college students with regard to polycystic ovarian syndrome and their previous knowledge about PCOS and relationship with the person who suffered with PCOS.

 

Hence there is a necessity to impart knowledge on PCOS to nursing college students.

 

REFERENCES:

1.     Noman UI Haq. Et al; prevalence and knowledge of PCOS among female science students of different public universities; impersonal journal of inter disciplinary Research volume–3, Issue–6, 2017, 2454–1362. http:// www. Online journal.in.

2.     Dalal manita et, al; an exploratory survey to assess the knowledge, practice and prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome among women. IOJR journal of nursing and health science-Nov-Dec, 2014, vol.3, issue: 6, PP: 39-42.

3.     Abhirami. P assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching and practice among patients with PCOS at srm general hospital IJIRMS – August – 2017, volume - 2, Issue: 08, 2455-8737.

4.     Jayshree. J Upadhyee et. al, (2017) “Awareness of PCOS in adolescent and young girls. International journal of reproduction, contraception, obstetrics and gynaecology Jun 6: 2297–2301. www. Ijrcog.org.

5.     Sunanda.B, sabitha nayak “study to assess the knowledge regarding PCOS “–Nittle university journal of health sciences–2016, vol-6, No-3, pg. No-24-26.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 04.08.2018        Modified on 14.08.2018

Accepted on 27.08.2018      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2018; 6(3): 210-214.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2018.00046.X