Effectiveness of Planned Teaching about Knowledge regarding study related Stress and Coping ability among Higher Secondary Students in A Selected Junior College

 

Ms. Deepali D. Chaware1, Muniyandi. S2

1M.Sc Nursing Final Year, Kasturba Nursing College, Sewagram, Kasturba Health Society,

Sewagram, Wardha Dist, Maharashtra 442102

2Associate Professor and HOD, Kasturba Nursing College Sewagram, Kasturba Health Society,

Sewagram Wardha dist, Maharashtra 442102

*Corresponding Author E-mail: deepalichawre@gamil.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Effectiveness of planned teaching about knowledge regarding study related stress and Coping ability among higher secondary students in a selected junior college Objectives of the study To assess the level of knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students, assess the effectiveness of planned teaching about knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students and also to determine the association between the level of knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students with their selected demographic variables. This study was based on quantitative approach. Sample: The population was higher secondary students in selected junior college. The sample consisted of 50 students (11th and 12thstandard- science stream). The inclusion criteria were: (a) according to academic stress scale who were having study related stress students in junior college. (b) Both male and female students of junior college (science stream), (c) Students willing to participate in the study. The tool was self-structured knowledge questionnaire. Based on the objectives and the hypothesis the data were analyzed and by using various statistical tests i.e. percentage, mean, chi square and standard deviations‘t’ test. The level of significance set for testing the hypothesis was at 0.05. Results: The findings show that the calculated‘t’ value was 17.85 for knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability. The calculated‘t’ value was much higher than the tabulated value. Hence, it was strongly interpreted that the planned teaching regarding study related stress was effective. So, the H1 was accepted.

 

KEYWORDS: Effectiveness, planned teaching, Study related stress, coping ability.

 


 

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

Stress as a condition or feeling is experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. Stress in the workplace is now widely recognized as a major problem all over the world. However, for those seeking to introduce stress management activities, too little in the way of guidance and direction has been available.

 

In life it is very common to hear about death and taxes in first and second position, and stress comes in the third position of human problems. Stress is part of life no matter how wealthy, powerful, attractive, or happy people might be. However, stress may take different forms depending on the situation. Stress may occur when one is doing a difficult exam, an automobile accident, waiting in a long line, during a day on which everything goes wrong etc 1

 

College students experience a number of sleep problems, which may impact academic performance, health, and mood. A common sleep problem among college students is sleep deprivation and resulting excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Both biological and social factors contribute to deprivation. Many college students are older adolescents and are still dealing with adolescent physiology such as a biologically driven delayed sleep phase. 2

 

Suicidal tendencies among students have gone up as they are burdened with greater expectations from the parents coupled with academic pressure. Statistics show that more and more students are taking the extreme step of suicide in a bid to end their misery after failing in their pursuit of professional excellence. The causes are due to failure or rejection by the society and not for purely economic reasons as was in the past. Generation gap too has been playing a significant role in driving the youngsters to commit suicide. Parents are busy in their respective professions and hardly have time to deal with the problems of their wards. People, especially students are in need of support during examination period, but they seldom find moral support.3

 

Stress can be defined as, any change in the body’s equilibrium. Any negative stress is also known as distress. Distress occurs when while performing a task or throughout a day to day activity tension builds up, there is no longer any fun in it and there seems to be no relief. This may lead to poor decision making. The general characteristics of the person in distress are, over-aroused, tense, unable to relax, touchy, easily upset, irritable, easily startled, nervy, jumpy, fidgety and intolerant of interruption or delay. Excessive stress results in increased prevalence of psychological problems like depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide ideation4

 

BACK GROUND OF STUDY:

Global suicide rates among adolescents in the 15-19 age groups, according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) Mortality Database, were examined. (Data of this age group were available from 90 countries in some cases areas) out of the 130 WHO member states). The mean suicide rate for this age group, based on data available for the latest year, was 7.4/100,000. Suicide rates were higher in males (10.5) than in females (4.1). This applies in almost all countries. The exceptions are China, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador and Silence, where the female suicide rate was higher than the male. All individuals are not equally rational and tolerant. Some get angry when their authority is flouted. This complicates the situation and hampers children’s free expression.5

 

In Indian scenario Over 16,000 students suicide in the last three years. (Acc. to Health Ministry) Out of every three cases of suicide reported every 15 minutes in India, one is committed by a youth in the age group of 15 to 29. Every 90 minutes a teenager tries to commit suicide in India. Many of these attempts are half-hearted cries for attention, help and love. But every six hours, one succeeds Girls may be more likely to make suicidal attempts, but boys are more likely to make a truly lethal suicide attempt.6

 

Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world; in fact, 75% of global suicide occurred in low- and middle-income countries in 2012. Suicide accounted for 1.4% of all deaths worldwide, making it the 15th leading cause of death in 2012. Effective and evidence-based interventions can be implemented at population, sub-population and individual levels to prevent suicide and suicide attempts .There are indications that for each adult who died of suicide there may have been more than 20 others attempting suicide.7

 

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

Many researchers studied the stress experienced by students and the demographic factors affecting it. A study aimed to identify stress and reactions to stress among university students and examine the correlations between student stressors and study variables. The result indicated that the highest group of stressors experienced by students was self imposed stressors followed by pressure. Cognitive responses were found to be the highest responses to stressors experienced by students.

 

A study conducted to describe the relationship between college stress, coping strategy and psychological well-being, used 342 students in 6 universities. The study proved that psychological well-being had a negative relationship with college stress and a positive coping strategy has significant buffering effects on psychological health problems. Also they found that the male students reported higher level of stress, worse psychological well-being, and having less inclination towards using positive coping strategies. And also found that (29%) of the students experienced medium stress, and there was a significant difference in the level of stress attributed to gender, and between students in rural and urban secondary schools. The results also indicated that there were many factors influencing students’ stress such as parenting style, and parent’s education background.8

 

A cross-sectional study was conducted. The objective was to study the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in South Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Three schools and two colleges of South Delhi were chosen. There were 550 adolescent students aged 14-19. Results showed that, A total of 88 (16.0%) students reported having ever tried cigarette or smoking. The prevalence of current smoking was 7.1%. Exactly 10% (55) of the students reported having ever used smokeless forms of tobacco. The prevalence of tobacco use overall was found to be 20.9%, and was significantly higher (P=0.016) among the males than the females. Tobacco use was found to be significantly associated with having seen a brother/sister smoke (OR 5.15), best friend smoke (OR 2.92), and belonging to a nuclear family (OR 1.96). Conclusion: Tobacco use is still an important risk behavior among adolescent students. This study found a strong association of tobacco use by the adolescents with their having seen various role models ever smoking.9

 

An experimental study was conducted. The main objective of the study was to assess the effects of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asana, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results showed that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further showed that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affected the students' performance.10

 

Like adolescents in East Asia, Indian middle-class adolescents face a highly competitive examination system. This study examines the influence of school demands on the daily time use and subjective states of Indian young people. One hundred urban, middle-classes, 8th-grade students carried alarm watches for 1 week and provided 4764 reports on their activities and subjective states at random times, following the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method. These adolescents were found to spend one third of their waking time in school-related activities, with girls spending more time than boys. Schoolwork generated negative subjective states as reflected in low affect state, below-average activation levels, lower feeling of choice, and higher social anxiety. These negative states were most frequent during homework. The trade-off faced by Indian adolescents were evident in the findings that those who spent more time doing homework experienced lower average emotional states and more internalizing problems, while those who spent more time in leisure experienced more favorable states but also reported higher academic anxiety and lower scholastic achievement.22

 

A supportive school environment is crucial to the enhancement of student teaching experiences. This study assesses student teachers' perceptions of secondary school environments, and then relates the perceptions to their satisfaction with school experiences and teaching commitment. The results show that considerable disparities between student teachers' perceptions of actual and preferred school environments and suggest certain directions for improvement. Student teachers' perceptions about their school environments, especially in the areas of professional interest and staff freedom were positively associated with their satisfaction. Several school environmental aspects influenced the total years they planned to teach and their intention to teach at the placement schools. 23

 

Adolescence is a transitional period. They undergo rapid physical and emotional changes due to hormonal influence which may lead to increased frustration and stress influencing the factors. Help is needed from teachers, parents, peers, and health care professional to manage their study related stress. Hence, the researcher felt that study related stress and coping ability based interventions will help the adolescent to express their stressful situation in a healthy way. This will help to improve anxiety and wellbeing and preventing the consequences of stress such as substance abuse, physical illnesses, and mental disorders among adolescents.

 

PROBLEM STATEMENT:

Assessment of the effectiveness of planned teaching about knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in a selected junior college.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

·      To assess the level of knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students.

·      To assess the effectiveness of planned teaching on level of knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students.

·      To determine the association between the levelof knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students with their selected demographic variables.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

The study can help the students to resolve their stress by using the knowledge on study related stress and coping ability.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H0: There is no significant difference between the pre test and post test knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students measured at p<0.05 level of significance.

 

H1: There is significant difference between the pre-test and post-test knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary student measured at p<0.05 level of significance.

 

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:

Good research usually integrates research findings into an orderly, coherent system. Such integration typically involves linking research and existing knowledge through review of prior research on a topic and by identifying or developing an appropriate conceptual framework.

 

Conceptual framework deals with abstractions (concepts) that are assembled by virtue of their relevance to a common theme. A conceptual model broadly presents an understanding of the phenomenon of interest and reflects the assumptions and philosophy views of the model’s designer’s steps, activities and outcome of the study.

 

According to the Roy’s adaptation theory, a system consists of a set of interacting components that is, input, throughput and output within a boundary that filter the type and rate of exchange with the environment.

 

INPUT:

Internal and external stimuli including psychological, social, physical and physiological factors, serve asa inputs to the cognate subsystem. Stimuli adaptation level serve as input, human adoptive system, processing of this input through control process results in behavioral responses.

 

Input consists of information, material or energy that enters the system.

 

In the pretest, to assess the level of knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in a selected junior college and the demographic variables such as age, gender, type of family, number of siblings, area of residence, parent’s education status, monthly income in rupees. Before that assessment of academic stress scale i.e. No stress score (1 – 40) slightly Stress (41- 80), moderate stress (81–120), high stress (121 -160) and extremely stress (16–200). Using academic stress scale based on scale criteria.

 

THROUGHPUT:

After the input is absorbed by the system it is processed in a way useful to the system. This transformation is called throughput.

 

The characteristic of internal and external stimuli influences adequacy of cognitive and emotional processes. The characteristic of internal and external stimuli influences response. Human being isdescribed as adoptive system that are constantly growing and developing within changing environments. Health for human adoptive system cans be described as a reflection of their interaction or adaptation.

 

To assess the pretest level of knowledge and administration of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability with Planned teaching can help to improve the knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability.

 

OUTPUT:

The general goal of nursing intervention is to maintain and enhance adoptive behavior and to change in effective behavior to adoptive. It is nurse’s role to promote adaptation in situation of health and illness and to enhance the interaction of human systems with environment, their by promoting health.

 

Output from a system is energy, matter or information given out by the system as a result of its processes.

 

In this study posttest, reveals results students are significantly improving in knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in a selected junior college. The gain in knowledge was measured through the post test.

 

FEEDBACK:

Feedback is the mechanism by which some of the output of a system is returned to the system as input. Feedback enables a system to regulate itself by redirecting the output of a system back into the system as input, thus forming a feedback loop. This input influences the behavior of the system and its future output. If there is no any insignificant gain in knowledge scores indicates inadequate knowledge gain and, then the investigator would redirect the process. If there is significant gain in scores indicates adequate knowledge gain. However in the present study feedback is not included.


 

FIGURE NO.1: MODIFIED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK BASED ON ROYS ADOPTATION MODEL (1968 )

 


REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Written literature reviews are the critical summaries of what is known about a particular topic. The review serves as an integrative function and facilitates the accumulation of knowledge. Hence, review of literature is important to a research in order to know what has been established and documented. Review of literature is important for having a broad understanding of problem. The material gathered in the literature review should be treated as an integral part of research data. Since what is found in the literature can not only have an influence which is important in the formalities of the problem and the design of research, but also provides useful comparative material when the data collected in the research is analyzed.

 

The literature review is presented in this chapter under the following headings:

Ÿ  Reviews of literature related to study related stress.

Ÿ  Reviews of literature related to prevalence and effects of study related stress.

Ÿ  Reviews of literature related to effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability

 

A descriptive corelational study was conducted correctional study on academic stress and self esteem among higher secondary students in selected school of Udupi district. A total of 96 students sample were selected..Finding showed that 69.00 %, 15.60 % and 15.40 % of the students experienced high, moderate and low stress respectively. Present study found that majority (82.3%) of the students' self-esteem was within normal range, only 6.2% had low self-esteem and 11.5% were having high self-esteem. Significant but low negative relationship was found between academic stress and self-esteem. This study concluded that majority of the adolescents experience academic stress ranging from moderate to severe and self -esteem was in normal range. It has proved that there is a significant but low negative correlation exists between academic stress and self- esteem.11

 

A descriptive survey design was conducted on Perceived Impact of Stress on the Academic Achievement of Biology Students in Education District IV, Lagos State. Nigeria. This study examined the perceived impact of stress on the academic achievements of Biology student. 100 Biology students were randomly selected using ballot method from four schools in education District IV. Four research questions guided the study. The research instrument used for collecting data was the Stress Assessment Scale for students (SASS). Finding showed that, students experience stress most at the end of the term and that students perceive stress as having negative impact on academic achievement. It was recommended that teachers should pace their work adequately in order not to rush students at the end of the term. Also students should be taught stress management skills.12

 

A survey study was conducted on Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in College Students: Impact on Academic Performance. The Objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of risk for sleep disorders among college students by gender and age, and their associations with grade point average (GPA). Total Participants were 1,845 college students at a large, southeastern public university. Result showed that, Twenty-seven percent of students were at risk for at least one sleep disorder. African American and Asian students reported less risk for insomnia and fewer poor sleep practices relative to white and Latino students. Students reported insufficient sleep and a discrepancy between weekday and weekend amount of sleep. Students at risk for sleep disorders were overrepresented among students in academic jeopardy (GPA <2.0). Concluded, many college students are at risk for sleep disorders, and those at risk may also be at risk for academic failure.13

 

A descriptive study was conducted to investigate the stress levels and coping strategies of professional students belonging to Physical Education and Engineering professions. A sample of 60 subjects was randomly selected from the Physical Education and Engineering Institute, India. Finding showed that all four variables that is, frustration, inhibition, overload time argent and aggressive behavior and coping strategies, were significant at 0.05 level therefore, it can be concluded that physical education students had better coping strategies than engineering students.14

 

A correlation study was done on Perceived stress, life events and coping among higher secondary students of Hyderabad, India, to assess stress appraisal among the students (16–17) and to identify institution specific differences in stress appraisal and coping. A total of 256 samples wereselected. The method used was statistical analysis finding which showed that the students of both Government and Private schools showed similar stress perception, though the former tended to have a higher mean score. The scores were significant higher on avoidance coping (P<0.05). The stepwise regression model showed coping as the independent predictor of perceived stress (R2=10%). Conclusion: from Government schools there had been significantly higher scores on avoidance coping and therefore, suitable for a systematic study on chronic stress for early intervention.15

 

A longitudinal study was conducted on stress, coping and depression in adolescent to assess association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms over time. A total sample of 20,745 students was selected. Finding showed that, the stressful life events in students were 0.99 %. There was significant association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms of students (p value <0.05). Conclusion: In sum, the findings in the current study supported that adolescence is an important period of examining stress, coping, depression and their dynamic associations as well. Depressive symptoms and the number of stressful life events both reach peak by the end of middle adolescence, which can be one of the grounds for policymakers to implement prevention and intervention programs targeted youth at this age.16

 

A quantitative approach has been undertaken to assess students' stress. The study aimed to assess the levels of stress experienced by university students. The sample consisted of 471 students from Tafila Technical University. Participants were recruited from a population of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year (TTU) students, they were chosen randomly, so the study sample consisted of (473) student which forms (11%) of the study population. The results indicate that the students experienced a moderate level of stress. Female students have more stress level (3.16) than males (3.14) and by using t-test; it was found that the difference is statistically significant at (α 0.05). By using MANOVA, it was found that gender, college and study level are statistically significant (α≤ 0.05) factors in causing stress associated with physical factor while they are not significant in social or academic factors. Concluded, the university students experienced a moderate social, academic and physical stress level.17

 

A descriptive study was conducted to investigate the stress levels and coping strategies of professional students belonging to Physical Education and Engineering professions. A sample of 60 subjects was randomly selected from the Physical Education and Engineering Institute, India. Finding showed that all four variables that is, frustration, inhibition ,overload time argent and aggressive behavior and coping strategies, were significant at 0.05 level therefore, it can be concluded that physical education students had better coping strategies than engineering students .18

 

A descriptive study was conducted on stress Management for Higher Secondary Students in Salem District-Tamil Nadu, to estimate the level of stress in higher secondary students studying and then to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management programs. A total of 100sampleswere selected. For this study the Stratified, convenient sampling techniques was used. Findings showed that, Null Hypothesis: There is no association between Gender and group wise classification of the respondents. Concluded, the chi-square test denoted that the Pearson chi-square value=17.594of likelihood ratio=20.174along with linear-by-linear associations .114. The probabilistic in the above mentioned statistics were significant at 5% level. It was concluded that null hypothesis was rejected and there was an association between gender and group.19

 

 


 

\

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

FIGURE NO.1: SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CRITERIA FOR SAMPLING SELECTION

 

 


Inclusion criteria:

Ÿ  According to academic stress scale students who was having study related stress as per scale criteria and score was slightly stress (41-80), moderate stress (81–120), high stress (121-160) and extremely stress ( 161–200)were included in the study.

Ÿ  Both male and female students of Junior college (science stream between age group of 16-19 years).

Ÿ  Students willing to participate in the study.

 

Exclusion criteria:

Ÿ  According to academic stress scale junior college studentswho were not having study related stress i.e. No stress (NS) score ( 1 – 40 ) .

Ÿ  Undergone similar training programme.

Ÿ  Students practicing any stress reducing techniques (Eg.Yoga, meditation, prayer etc.)

 

Table no. 2: Scoring procedure on knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability.

Sr. No.

Level of knowledge score

`Score range

Percentage range (%)

1.

Poor

1 – 13

0 < 50%

2.

Average

14 -18

51 % - 75 %

3.

Good

19 – 25

76 % - 100 %

 

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:

ORGANIZATION OF FINDINGS:

The analysis and interpretation of the observations are given in the following sections:

 

Section I:

Distribution of higher secondary students in the selected Junior college with regards to demographic variables.

 

Section II:

Assessment of level of knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students.

 

Section III:        

Evaluation of the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students

 

Section IV:

Association betweenthe level of knowledge score with their selected demographic variables.

 

SECTION – I:

DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE WITH REGARDS TO DEMOGRAPHIC DATA:

Table 4: Percentage wise distribution According to demographic characteristics (n = 50)

Sr no.

Demographical

Variables

Categories

Frequency

Percentages (%)

1.

Age(years)

a)  16 years

0

0

b) 17 years

25

50        

c)  18 years

22

44        

d) 19 years

3

6

2.

Gender

 a)Male

21

42        

 b)Female

 29

58

3.

Type of family

a)  Nuclear family

8

16        

b) Joint family

27

54        

c)  Extended family

0

0          

d) Single Parents family

15

30

4.

No. of siblings

a)  1

18

36        

b) 2

27

54        

c)  More than above

5

10

5.

Area of residence

a)  Urban

4

8          

b) Rural

42

84        

c)  Slum

4

8

6.

Parent’s education status

a)  Illiterate

10

20        

b)Primary and

23

45        

c)Secondary

11

21        

d)Graduate and above

6

12

7.

Monthly income in rupees

a)  Up to 10000

23

46        

b) 10001 – 2000

7

14        

c)  20001- 30000

13

26        

d) 30001 and above

7

 14

 

 

ASSESSMENT ON LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING STUDY RELATED STRESS AND COPING ABILITY AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS:

Table no. 5: Frequency and percentage distribution on level of knowledge study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students  n = 50

Level of knowledge score

Pre-test score

Post-test score

frequency

Percentage (%)

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Poor

(1 – 13 )

49

98 %

13

26 %

Average

(14 – 18)

1

2 %

12

24 %

Good

(19 – 25)

0

0 %

25

50 %

 

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNED TEACHING ABOUT KNOWLEDGE REGARDING STUDY RELATED STRESS AND COPING ABILITY AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS IN A SELECTED JUNIOR COLLEGE.

Table no 6: Mean, standard deviation, mean differences in scores and‘t’ value for regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students n=50

Sr no.

Knowledge level

Mean

SD

MD

t value

Significance

1.

Pre test

6.5

2.89

10.1

17.85

P<0.05

2.

Post test

16.64

4.12

 P < 0.05 level *significant

 

Above table shows that, the mean pretest score was 6.5 with the standard deviation 2.89, whereas in post test the mean score was 16.64 with the standard deviation of 4.12. The mean difference in pretest and post test scores was 10.1. The findings show that the calculated ‘t’ value was 17.85 for knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability. The calculated‘t’ value was much higher than the tabulated value at of at df49. This data signifies that the planned teaching was effective in assessing the knowledge of study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in selected junior college. Hence, it was strongly interpreted that the planned teaching regarding study related stress and coping ability was effective. So the H1 is accepted.

 

ASSOCIATION OF KNOWLEDGE SCORE WITH THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

Table no. 7: Frequency, percentage and Chi square (χ2) analysis on level of knowledge among higher secondary students with their selected demographic variables

 Sr no.

Demographical variables

Level of knowledge

Chi square

(χ2)

Poor

Satisfactory

Good

1.

Age

F

%

F

%

F

%

 

χ2= 1.019NS

df=2

 

a)  16

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

b) 17

24

48

1

2

0

0

 

c)  18

22

44

0

0

0

0

 

d) 19

3

6

0

0

0

0

2.

Gender

 

χ2=1.36NS

df =1

 

a)    Male

20

40

1

2

0

0

 

b)    Female

29

58

0

0

0

0

3.

Type of family

 

 

χ2= 2.66NS

df =2

 

 

a)  Nuclear family

8

16

0

0

0

0

 

b)    Joint family

27

54

0

0

0

0

 

c)    Extended family

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Single parents family

14

28

1

2

0

0

4.

Number of siblings

χ2= 0.88NS

df = 2

 

 

a)    1

18

36

0

0

0

0

 

b)    2

26

52

1

2

0

0

 

c)    More than above

5

1

0

0

0

0

 

5.

Area of residence

 

 

a)    Urban

4

8

0

0

0

0

 

χ2=.0.19NS

df = 3

 

b)    Rural

41

82

1

2

0

0

 

c)    Slum

4

8

0

0

0

0

6.

Parent’s education status

 

χ2= 5.92NS

df = 3

 

 

a)    illiterate

10

2

0

0

0

0

 

b)    Secondary

22

44

0

0

0

0

 

c)    Higher secondary

11

22

1

2

0

0

d)      Graduate and above

6

12

0

0

0

0

7.

Monthly income in rupees

χ2= 1.18NS

df=3

 

 

 

a)    Up to 10000

22

44

1

2

0

0

 

b)    10001- 20000

7

14

0

0

0

0

 

c)    20001-30000

13

26

0

0

0

0

 

d) 30001 and above

7

14

0

0

0

0

*significant

NS- non significant

df= degree of freedom

 

Distribution of subjects according to the demographic variables shows that, out of the 50 subjects, 25 (50 %) belonged to the age of 17 years, 22 (44%) to the age of 18 years while 3(6%) to the age of 19 years. The subjects according to their gender 29(58%) were female and 21(42%) were male. subjects according to their type of family, 27 (54%) were from joint family, 15(30%) single parent family, 8(16%) from nuclear family. The subjects according to their number of siblings, 27 (54%) had two sibling, 18(36%) had one sibling, 5(10%) have more than two siblings. According to their residence area, 42(84%) subjects were from rural area, 4(8%) were from urban area and 4 (8%) were from slum area. subjects according to their parent’s education, 23(46%) of parents had primary, 11(22%) had higher secondary, 10(20%) were illiterate and 6(12%) were graduate and above. According to their monthly income 46 % had monthly income of Rs up to 10000, 26 % had monthly income of Rs 20001-30000, 14% had monthly income of Rs 10001 -20000, 14% had monthly income of Rs 30001 and above.

 

Thus, the null hypothesis H0: There is no significant difference between the pretest and post test knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students measured at p<0.05 level of significance is rejected and the research hypothesis, H1: There is significant difference between the pretest and post test knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students measured at p<0.05 level of significance is accepted.

 

There was no significant association between level of knowledge with their demographic variables such as age, gender, religion, type of family, number of siblings, residence area, parent’s education status, monthly income in rupees in this study.

 

SUMMARY:

The researcher has selected this study keeping in mind the necessity to improve the knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in selected junior college.

 

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY:

The following were the major findings of the study

 

SECTION I:

Demographic Variables:

Ÿ  Demographic s for the present study show, out of the 50 subjects, Majority of the subjects 25 (50 %) were of the age of 17 years, 22 (44%) to the age of 18 years while 3(6%) of the age of 19 years.

Ÿ  Majority of the subjects according to their gender 29(58%) were female and 21(42%) were male

Ÿ  Majority of subjects according to their type of family, 27(54%) were from joint family, 15(30%) single parent family, 8(16%) from nuclear family, .

Ÿ  Majority of the subjects according to their number of sibling, 27 (54%) had two sibling, 18(36%) had one siblings, 5(10%) had more than two siblings.

Ÿ  Majority of subjects according to their residence area, 42(84%) were from rural area, 4(8%) were from urban area and 4 (8%) were from slum area.

Ÿ  Majority of subjects according to their parent’s education, 23(46%) of parents was primary, 11(22%) had higher secondary, 10(20%) had illiterate and 6(12%) were graduate and above.

Ÿ  Majority of subjects according to their monthly income 46 % had monthly income of Rs up to 10000, 26 % had monthly income of Rs 20001- 30000, 14% belong to monthly income of Rs 10001- 20000, 14% had monthly income of Rs 30001 and above.

 

SECTION II:

Assessment on level knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students.:

The findings show that in pretest scores, 98% of samples were having poor level of knowledge, 2% of samples having average level of knowledge and none of them having good level of knowledge. But in post test score 26 % of samples were having poor level of knowledge, 24 % of samples were having average level of knowledge and 50 % of samples having good level of knowledge.

SECTION III:

Evaluation of effectiveness of planned teaching about knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students:

The findings show that the calculated ‘t’ value was 17.85 for knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability. The calculated ‘t’ value was much higher than the tabulated value at of at df49. This data signifies that the planned teaching was effective in assessing the knowledge of study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in selected junior college. Hence, it was strongly interpreted that the planned teaching regarding study related stress and coping ability was effective. So the H1 is accepted.

 

SECTION IV:

Association of knowledge score with their demographic variables.:

This section includes association of level of coping strategies with their selected demographic variables. The overall mean of study related stress and coping ability was calculated and χ2 (chi square) test was used for finding the association between study related stress and coping ability with demographic variables.

 

There was no significant association between study related stress and coping ability used and demographic variables such as age, gender, type of family, number of siblings, area of residence, parent’s education status, monthly income in rupees because of sample size is less.

 

DISCUSSION:

The findings of the study were discussed with reference to the objectives stated in chapter I and with the findings of the other sections. The present study was undertaken as,

 

Assessment of the effectiveness of planned teaching about knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students in a selected junior college”.

 

Distribution of subjects according to the demographic variables shows that, out of the 50 subjects, 25 (50 %) belonged to the age of 17 years, 22 (44%) to the age of 18 years while 3(6%) to the age of 19 years. The subjects according to their gender 29(58%) were female and 21(42%) were male. subjects according to their type of family, 27(54%) were from joint family, 15(30%) single parent family, 8(16%) from nuclear family. The subjects according to their number of siblings, 27 (54%) had two sibling, 18(36%) had one sibling, 5(10%) have more than two siblings. According to their residence area, 42(84%) subjects were from rural area, 4(8%) were from urban area and 4 (8%) were from slum area. subjects according to their parent’s education, 23(46%) of parents had primary, 11(22%) had higher secondary, 10(20%) were illiterate and 6(12%) were graduate and above. According to their monthly income 46 % had monthly income of Rs up to 10000, 26 % had monthly income of Rs 20001-30000, 14% had monthly income of Rs 10001 -20000, 14% had monthly income of Rs 30001 and above.

 

The findings of the study show that, the mean pretest score was 6.5 with the standard deviation 2.89, whereas in post test the mean score was 16.64 with the standard deviation of 4.12. The mean difference in pretest and post test scores was 10.1. The calculated ‘t’ value was 17.85; it showed that calculated ‘t’ value was much higher than the tabulated ‘t’ value and that there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students.

 

Thus, the null hypothesis H0: There is no significant difference between the pretest and post test knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students measured at p<0.05 level of significance is rejected and the research hypothesis, H1: There is significant difference between the pretest and post test knowledge regarding study related stress and coping ability among higher secondary students measured at p<0.05 level of significance is accepted.

 

There was no significant association between level of knowledge with their demographic variables such as age, gender, religion, type of family, number of siblings, residence area, parent’s education status, monthly income in rupees in this study.

 

The following two studies are added for more conformity to researcher proven hypothesis.

 

A study was conducted to determine the sources of stress among African American college students at a private historically black college and university (HBCU). In this study95 students were chosen through a convenient sampling. Significant differences were found between gender, classification and their sources of stress. The study reported that there were top five sources of stress were, important decisions about their education, peers respect what you have to say, too many things to do at once, a lot of responsibilities and financial burdens. In which Females had scored higher than the males. The study revealed that 78 percent of the subjects responded distinctly to the question, important decisions about your education. 77percent of the subjects responded distinctly to the question, peers respect what you have to say. 73 percent of the subjects responded distinctly to the question, too many things to do at once. 70 percent responded distinctly to the question, a lot of responsibilities. 64 percent responded distinctly to the question, important decisions about your future career. This study concluded that academic and peer stress are main sources of stress among college students.20

 

A descriptive study was conducted in the National Institute of Nursing Education PGIMER, Chandigarh to assess the causes of stress and the ways of coping with stress. Total Forty. Three Basic B.Sc Nursing 1st year students were selected purposely for collection of data. Thequestionnaire consisted of two parts of checklist, 1st part is for causes of stress and 2nd part is the coping strategies. Result revealed that 21 (48.83%) students were having a mild stress and 5 (11.62%) were having moderate stress. Academic stress ranked highest among the stresses perceived by the nursing students. Factors of little concern were financial area which was perceived as least stressful. Most of the nursing students, perceived "difficulty in participation in social life because of long college hours," as most stressful followed by "shortage of time for self study" and "problems in getting log book completed." Majority of the subject tended to use more of healthy coping strategies as compared to negative or unhealthy ones. “Positive thinking" and listening to music/radio were used frequently. Conclusion: Stress has become a chronic and pervasive condition in the world today. Present era is marked as an era of stress. Every person experience different forms of stress throughout their life, therefore a student nurse is no exception as she has to adjust to an entirely new environment on joining a training course in nursing. Coping with stress for a student nurse is a dynamic and ongoing process, aimed at survival, growth and maintenance of the individual integrity. She tries to restore the imbalance or disequilibrium within her by attempted adjustment and this attempted adjustment is by the use of various coping strategies which can be healthy or unhealthy.21

 

The researcher also have identified as per abovestudies findings reveals that there is a significant effectiveness of informational booklet for higher secondary students regarding the study related stress and coping ability. So, in present study there is effectiveness of planned teaching of study related stress and coping ability.

 

CONCLUSION:

After the detailed analysis, this study leads to the following conclusion:

 

The higher secondary students did not have 100% knowledge regarding study related stress. There was a significant increase in the knowledge of subjects after introduction of planned teaching. To find the effectiveness of planned teaching students ‘t’ test was applied ‘t’ value calculated, post test score was significantly higher at 0.05 level than that of post score. Thus, it was concluded that planned teaching on study related stress and coping ability was found effective as a teaching strategy.

 

Demographical variables did not show a major role in influencing the pretest and posttest knowledge score among higher secondary students in the selected junior college.

 

Hence based on the above cited findings, it was concluded undoubtedly that the prepared material by the investigator in the form of planned teaching helped the higher secondary students to improve their knowledge on study related stress and coping ability.

 

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Received on 19.09.2017        Modified on 19.11.2017

Accepted on 21.12.2017       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Int.  J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2018; 6(3): 179-190.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2652.2018.00041.0