Valerian Tea Improves the Sleep Quality of Senior Citizens

 

Logeshwari. J.

Lecturer, Dhanvantri College of  Nursing, Pallakkapalayam.

*Corresponding Author’s Email:logesh0987@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Context: Aging is as the process of maturing or becoming older, several physical and psychological changes are known to occur with normal ageing, however, adjustment to changes in sleep quantity and quality can be among the most difficult.  In spite of the progress made in the treatment of sleep disorders, valerian tea is the best method used to improve the quality of sleep among senior citizens. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of valerian tea on sleep among senior citizens. Method: True experimental design, where Pre and Posttest with control Group design was used. 60 senior citizens were included in the study. Simple Random sampling technique was used in the study. Experimental group of senior citizens was given valerian tea before an hour to sleep. The data was obtained by using a demographic variables and Pittsburgh sleep quality index for sleep. Result Results shows that in post test 73% of senior citizens had average improvement in sleep and 23% of senior citizens had good improvement in sleep in experimental group and in control group 60% were in average sleep and 40% were in poor sleep. The calculated unpaired’ test value showed that there is significant effectiveness of valerian tea (t=9.3, tv =2.000) on sleep among senior citizens. Conclusion: Valerian tea is an effective intervention on sleep among senior citizens.

 

KEY WORDS: Sleep, senior citizens, valerian tea

 


INTRODUCTION:

Sleep disorders are commonly under diagnosed and are a significant source of concern in the geriatric population. The demographic profile of the elderly population in India, as per 2001 Census, showed that in the case of the general population, the majority of the elderly 75 % are living in rural areas and the rest 25 % are in urban areas. While 53 % among elderly males. (Angela Gentili, MD, 2012).

 

The Asian study of sleeping disorder has thrown up some surprising statistics. 1 out of every 20 Indian suffers from sleeping disorders. For years, sleep disorders was thought to be a western-developed world problem but this study has debunked that myth. Indian older women (6.5%) outnumber men (4.3%), when it comes to disturbed sleep. Extracts of the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) are widely used for inducing sleep and improving sleep quality (Gibson T, 2007).

 

METHODS:

This study was conducted based on True experimental where pretest and posttest with control group design was used as a blue print (Polit and Hungler, 2001). The setting of experimental group was Anbu Alayam, Komarapalayam and the setting of control group was N. Lkarunai Illam, K.K Nagar. The total sample size was 60 senior citizens, out of which 30 is experimental group and 30 is control group. Random sampling technique was used to the select the sample in which Lottery method was used to roll slips, are placed in a global container and thoroughly shuffle them. Mix the slips in the container thoroughly each time before drawing the slip. Then the units bearing the numbers of slip drawn constitute the random sample (Polit and Hungler, 2002).. Senior citizens were  selected based on the inclusion criteria such as age group above 60 years , both gender, who have given consent to participate in the  study, able to understand Tamil , and senior citizens with cognitive changes like mental illness, skin allergies, breathing difficulties, using medications like benzodiazepines, barbiturates, anti depressants. cardiac problems were excluded from the research .The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. (Buysse et al. 1989) was developed to measure sleep quality. Each component score ranges from 0 (no difficulty) to 3 (severe difficulty). The component scores are summed to produce a global score (range of 0–21). A PSQI global score >5 is considered to be suggestive of significant sleep disturbance.  Pretest was done by using Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale. Valerian tea given once daily for a period of 4 weeks to the senior citizens in experimental group and ordinary plain tea was given to control group. Posttest was conducted at the end of 4 weeks using the same scale.

 

RESULTS:

Distribution of experimental and control group samples according to their age group depicts, that highest percentage (57% and 63%) of them were in the age group of 71-80years, however 30 % and 27% were under the age group of 60-70yrs are more or less and the lowest percentage (13% and 10%) of them in the age group of above 80 years respectively.

 

With regard to gender, experimental and control group samples reveals that, the highest percentage (19%, and 18%) of senior citizens were females in both the groups.  However lower percentage (12% and 11%) of female senior citizens in experimental group and control group were respectively. It seems that female have sleep disturbances more than males respectively.

 

Distribution of experimental group of samples according to the frequency of the visit in family members’ shows that frequency of visit once in a month has highest percentage (80%) when compared to twice a month (17%), and the lowest percentage is none in a month (3%). However the highest percentages (83%) of them in control group have frequency of visit twice in a month and only 5 % of them have visitors twice in a month respectively.

 

Frequency and percentage distribution of experimental group pretest and post test scores of  sleep among senior citizens  depicts that, in pretest majority (73%) of senior citizens  had  poor sleep, only 27% of  senior citizens had  average sleep, whereas in posttest most (73%) of them were in average sleep, and 27% of senior citizens had good sleep. It seems that the valerian tea on sleep among senior citizens was effective.

 

Frequency and percentage distribution of control group pretest and post test scores of  sleep among  senior citizens depicts that, in pretest majority (57%) of senior citizens had  average sleep and only 43% of  senior citizens had poor sleep whereas in posttest majority (60%) of  senior citizens had  average sleep and 40% of  senior citizens  poor sleep. It seems that without intervention there is a mild change in the sleep among senior citizens.

 

Frequency and percentage distribution of   control  and experimental group  post test scores of  sleep among senior citizens which  depicts that, in control group 60% of  senior citizens had  average sleep and  40% of senior citizens  had poor sleep. Whereas in Experimental group most (73%) of senior citizens had average sleep and 27% of  senior citizens had good sleep. It seems that valerian tea on sleep among senior citizens was effective.

 

Comparison of mean, SD, mean percentage of experimental group pre and post test scores reveals that, the mean percentage of pretest was 72%, whereas in posttest it was 49%, revealing a difference of 23%. It depicts that the valerian tea on sleep was effective among senior citizens Comparison of mean, SD, mean percentage of control group pre and post test scores reveals that, the mean percentage of score for pretest was 69% whereas in posttest it was 69% revealing a difference of 0%. It depicts that the without intervention sleep was not effective among senior citizens. Comparison of mean, SD, mean percentage of post test scores of both experimental and control groups depicts that, the mean percentage of   control group was 69%, whereas in experimental group the mean percentage was 49% revealing a difference of 20 %. It depicts that the valerian tea on sleep was effective among senior citizens.

 


Table.1 Comparison of mean, SD, and mean percentage of experimental group and control group

Senior citizens

Maximum Score

LEVEL OF SLEEP

Difference in mean %

Pretest

Post test

Mean

SD

Mean%

Mean

SD

Mean%

Experimental group

21

15.1

1.39

72

10.3

2.3

49

23

 Control group

21

14.3

1.35

69

14.3

2.3

69

0

Difference in mean percentage of  experimental group and control group post test scores

20

 

Table.2 Paired’ test and Unpaired’ test value of experimental group and control group

Senior citizens

 ‘t’ value

Table value

Level of significant (P)

Experimental group ( Pre and posttest)

18.0*

2.045

P < 0.05   Significant

Control group ( Pre and posttest)

1.43*

2.045

P > 0.05 Not  Significant

Experimental and control group (Posttest)

9.3**

2.000

P < 0.05 Significant

*Paired ’t’ test value; ** Unpaired ‘t’ test


 

Paired ‘t’ test was calculated to analyze the effectiveness between pre and post test scores of experimental group on sleep. The Paired ’t’ test value was 18.00 when compared to table value 2.045 it is high. It seems that there is significant relationship between valerian tea and sleep among senior citizens. Paired ‘t’ test was calculated to analyze the effectiveness between pre and post test scores of control group on sleep. The Paired ’t’ test value was 1.43 when compared to table value 2.045 it is low. It seems that there is no significant change in sleep without intervention. Unpaired ‘t’ test was calculated to analyze the effectiveness between control and experimental groups post test scores on sleep among senior citizens. The Unpaired ‘t’ value was 9.34 when compared to table value 2.000 is high. It seems that there is significant relationship between valerian tea and sleep in experimental group and control group.

 

Chi-square was calculated to find out the association between experimental group post test scores of sleep among senior citizens with their demographic variables regarding valerian tea on sleep. It reveals that there was no significant association between the post test scores of experimental group when compared to age, gender, frequency of visit of family members, (P > 0.05). Chi-square was calculated to find out the association between control group post test scores of sleep among senior citizens with their demographic variables regarding valerian tea on sleep. It reveals that there was no significant association between the post test scores of control group when compared to age, gender, and frequency of visit of family members (P > 0.05).

 

DISCUSSION:

In experimental group, pretest majority (73%) of senior citizens had poor sleep, 27 of senior citizens had average sleep. In posttest t 27%) of senior citizens  had good sleep,73% of senior citizens had average sleep and no one had  poor sleep. It seems that the valerian tea on sleep was effective among senior citizens. In control group pretest majority (43%) of senior citizens were had poor sleep   and 57% of senior citizens had average sleep. In posttest majority (60%) of   had average sleep disturbances and 40% of mothers had poor sleep It seems that without intervention there is a mild change in sleep among senior citizens. Hence it can be interpreted that there is no significant association between control group posttest scores of sleep among senior citizens with their demographic variables. Hence it can be interpreted that   there is no significant association between experimental group posttest scores of sleep among senior citizens with their demographic variables.

 

The Paired ’t’ test value for sleep among experimental group was 18.0 when compared to table value 2.045 it is high. In pretest the mean standard deviation was 15.1 ± 1.3 and mean percentage was, 72%. In posttest the mean, standard deviation was 10.3 ± 2.3. And mean percentage was, 49%. Mean difference in percentage was 23%. The Paired ‘t’ test value for sleep among control group was 1.43 when compared to table value 2.045 it is low. In pretest the   mean and standard deviation was 14.3±1.35 and mean percentage was 69%.In posttest the mean and standard deviation was 14.3±1.3 and mean percentage was 69%.Mean difference in percentage was 0%.The Unpaired ‘t’ value for sleep in experimental group and control group post test scores was 9.3 when compared to table value 2.00 is high. Mean difference in experimental and control group post test score was 20%.

 

It reveals that there was no significant association between the post test scores of experimental group when compared to age, sex, and frequency of visit of family members (P > 0.05). Chi square value for  age was 5.98 (P < 0.05),Chi square value for sex was 3.18 (P > 0.05),Chi square value for frequency of visit was 2.84 (P > 0.05) t reveals that there was no significant association between the post test scores of experimental group when compared to age, sex, and frequency of visit of family members (P > 0.05). Chi square value for age was 2.43 (P < 0.05), Chi square value for sex was 0.34 (P > 0.05), Chi square value for frequency of visit of family members was 1.22 (P > 0.05)

 

Leathwood PD, Chauffard F (2008), conducted study on The effect of an aqueous extract of valerian  root on subjectively rated sleep measures was studied on 128 older  people. Valerian produced a significant decrease in subjectively evaluated sleep latency scores and a significant improvement in sleep quality. Results show that with the proprietary valerian-containing preparation, the only change was a significant increase in reports of feeling more sleepy than normal the next morning. A similar study can be undertaken to compare the effectiveness of valerian tea with other complimentary therapies like aromatherapy, taichi exercise etc.  Similar study can be carried out to identify the effectiveness of ‘valerian tea’ on other physiological variables such as hypertension, postmenopausal women, premenstrual symptoms etc.

 

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Received on 26.03.2015           Modified on 10.04.2015

Accepted on 16.04.2015           © A&V Publication all right reserved

Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management 3(2): April- June, 2015; Page 127-130